Table of Contents Index Previous Page Next Page    Top Ten Tips    Disclaimer

 

Disclaimer for this page: The regulations shown below between beginning and ending ----- DOL content ----- tags are from the GPO Access Electronic Code of Federal Regulations site linked below. They are provided here as a convenience to the reader. What appears below is not monitored by the issuing agency (DOL), and no guarantee is made that the information is accurate. To view the official and most current versions of these regulations at their source, click here. Errors may be reported to employerinfo@twc.state.tx.us.

 

----- begin DOL content -----

 

blue pill
e-CFR Data is current as of January 30, 2013


Title 29: Labor

Browse Part 778 | Browse Part 780

PART 779—THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES

Section Contents

Subpart A—General


Introductory

§ 779.0   Purpose of interpretative bulletin.
§ 779.1   General scope of the Act.
§ 779.2   Previous and new coverage.
§ 779.3   Pay standards for employees subject to previous coverage of the Act.
§ 779.4   Pay standards for newly covered employment.
§ 779.5   Matters discussed in this part.
§ 779.6   Matters discussed in other interpretative bulletins.

Interpretations of the Law

§ 779.7   Significance of official interpretations.
§ 779.8   Basic support for interpretations.
§ 779.9   Reliance on interpretations.
§ 779.10   Interpretations made, continued, and superseded by this part.

Some Basic Definitions

§ 779.11   General statement.
§ 779.12   Commerce.
§ 779.13   Production.
§ 779.14   Goods.
§ 779.15   Sale and resale.
§ 779.16   State.
§ 779.17   Wage and wage payments to tipped employees.
§ 779.18   Regular rate.
§ 779.19   Employer, employee, and employ.
§ 779.20   Person.
§ 779.21   Enterprise.
§ 779.22   Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.
§ 779.23   Establishment.
§ 779.24   Retail or service establishment.

Subpart B—Employment to Which the Act May Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage


General Principles

§ 779.100   Basic coverage in general.
§ 779.101   Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions.
§ 779.102   Scope of this subpart.

Employees Engaged in Commerce or in the Production of Goods for Commerce

§ 779.103   Employees “engaged in commerce.”
§ 779.104   Employees “engaged in the production of goods for commerce.”
§ 779.105   Employees engaged in activities “closely related” and “directly essential” to the production of goods for commerce.
§ 779.106   Employees employed by an independent employer.
§ 779.107   Goods defined.
§ 779.108   Goods produced for commerce.
§ 779.109   Amount of activities which constitute engaging in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.
§ 779.110   Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act.
§ 779.111   Buyers and their assistants.
§ 779.112   Office employees.
§ 779.113   Warehouse and stock room employees.
§ 779.114   Transportation employees.
§ 779.115   Watchmen and guards.
§ 779.116   Custodial and maintenance employees.
§ 779.117   Salesmen and sales clerks.
§ 779.118   Employees providing central services for multi-unit organizations.
§ 779.119   Exempt occupations.

Subpart C—Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage


Enterprise; the Business Unit

§ 779.200   Coverage expanded by 1961 and 1966 amendments.
§ 779.201   The place of the term “enterprise” in the Act.
§ 779.202   Basic concepts of definition.
§ 779.203   Distinction between “enterprise,” “establishment,” and “employer.”
§ 779.204   Common types of “enterprise.”

Related Activities

§ 779.205   Enterprise must consist of “related activities.”
§ 779.206   What are “related activities.”
§ 779.207   Related activities in retail operations.
§ 779.208   Auxiliary activities which are “related activities.”
§ 779.209   Vertical activities which are “related activities.”
§ 779.210   Other activities which may be part of the enterprise.
§ 779.211   Status of activities which are not “related.”

Common Business Purpose

§ 779.212   Enterprise must consist of related activities performed for a “common business purpose.”
§ 779.213   What is a common business purpose.
§ 779.214   “Business” purpose.

Unified Operation or Common Control

§ 779.215   General scope of terms.
§ 779.216   Statutory construction of the terms.
§ 779.217   “Unified operation” defined.
§ 779.218   Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”
§ 779.219   Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership.
§ 779.220   Unified operation may exist as to separately owned or controlled activities which are related.
§ 779.221   “Common control” defined.
§ 779.222   Ownership as factor.
§ 779.223   Control where ownership vested in individual or single organization.
§ 779.224   Common control in other cases.

Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements

§ 779.225   Leased departments.
§ 779.226   Exception for an independently owned retail or service establishment under certain franchise and other arrangements.
§ 779.227   Conditions which must be met for exception.
§ 779.228   Types of arrangements contemplated by exception.
§ 779.229   Other arrangements.
§ 779.230   Franchise and other arrangements.
§ 779.231   Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.
§ 779.232   Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.
§ 779.233   Independent contractors performing work “for” an enterprise.
§ 779.234   Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.
§ 779.235   Other “enterprises.”

Covered Enterprises

§ 779.236   In general.
§ 779.237   Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.
§ 779.238   Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis.
§ 779.239   Meaning of “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.”

Employees Handling, Selling, or Otherwise Working on Goods That Have Been Moved in or Produced for Commerce by Any Person

§ 779.240   Employees “handling  *  *  * or otherwise working on goods.”
§ 779.241   Selling.
§ 779.242   Goods that “have been moved in” commerce.
§ 779.243   Goods that have been “produced for commerce by any person.”

Covered Retail Enterprise

§ 779.244   “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services.
§ 779.245   Conditions for coverage of retail or service enterprises.

Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act

§ 779.246   Inflow test under section 3(s)(1) of the Act prior to 1966 amendments.
§ 779.247   “Goods” defined.
§ 779.248   Purchase or receive “goods for resale.”
§ 779.249   Goods which move or have moved across State lines.
§ 779.250   Goods that have not lost their out-of-State identity.
§ 779.251   Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity.
§ 779.252   Not in deliveries from the reselling establishment.
§ 779.253   What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise

§ 779.254   Summary of coverage and exemptions prior to and following the 1966 amendments.
§ 779.255   Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”
§ 779.256   Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.
§ 779.257   Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.

Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made or Business Done

§ 779.258   Sales made or business done.
§ 779.259   What is included in annual gross volume.
§ 779.260   Trade-in allowances.

Excise Taxes

§ 779.261   Statutory provision.
§ 779.262   Excise taxes at the retail level.
§ 779.263   Excise taxes not at the retail level.
§ 779.264   Excise taxes separately stated.

Computing The Annual Volume

§ 779.265   Basis for making computations.
§ 779.266   Methods of computing annual volume of sales or business.
§ 779.267   Fluctuations in annual gross volume affecting enterprise coverage and establishment exemptions.
§ 779.268   Grace period of 1 month for computation.
§ 779.269   Computations for a new business.

Subpart D—Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments


General Principles

§ 779.300   Purpose of subpart.
§ 779.301   Statutory provisions.

“Establishment” Basis of Exemptions

§ 779.302   Exemptions depend on character of establishment.
§ 779.303   “Establishment” defined; distinguished from “enterprise” and “business.”
§ 779.304   Illustrations of a single establishment.
§ 779.305   Separate establishments on the same premises.
§ 779.306   Leased departments not separate establishments.
§ 779.307   Meaning and scope of “employed by” and “employee of.”
§ 779.308   Employed within scope of exempt business.
§ 779.309   Employed “in” but not “by.”
§ 779.310   Employees of employers operating multi-unit businesses.
§ 779.311   Employees working in more than one establishment of same employer.

Statutory Meaning of Retail or Service Establishment

§ 779.312   “Retail or service establishment”, defined in section 13(a)(2).
§ 779.313   Requirements summarized.

Making Sales of Goods and Services “Recognized as Retail”

§ 779.314   “Goods” and “services” defined.
§ 779.315   Traditional local retail or service establishments.
§ 779.316   Establishments outside “retail concept” not within statutory definition; lack first requirement.
§ 779.317   Partial list of establishments lacking “retail concept.”
§ 779.318   Characteristics and examples of retail or service establishments.
§ 779.319   A retail or service establishment must be open to general public.
§ 779.320   Partial list of establishments whose sales or service may be recognized as retail.
§ 779.321   Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment.

“Recognized” as Retail “in the Particular Industry”

§ 779.322   Second requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment.”
§ 779.323   Particular industry.
§ 779.324   Recognition “in.”
§ 779.325   Functions of the Secretary and the courts.
§ 779.326   Sources of information.
§ 779.327   Wholesale sales.
§ 779.328   Retail and wholesale distinguished.
§ 779.329   Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

Sales Not Made for Resale

§ 779.330   Third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment.”
§ 779.331   Meaning of sales “for resale.”
§ 779.332   Resale of goods in an altered form or as parts or ingredients of other goods or services.
§ 779.333   Goods sold for use as raw materials in other products.
§ 779.334   Sales of services for resale.
§ 779.335   Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.
§ 779.336   Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

General Tests of Exemption Under Section 13(a)(2)

§ 779.337   Requirements of exemption summarized.
§ 779.338   Effect of 1961 and 1966 amendments.

Sales Made Within the State

§ 779.339   More than 50 percent intrastate sales required.
§ 779.340   Out-of-State customers.
§ 779.341   Sales “made within the State” and “engagement in commerce” distinguished.

Computing Annual Dollar Volume and Combination of Exemptions

§ 779.342   Methods of computing annual volume of sales.
§ 779.343   Combinations of exemptions.

Engaging in Manufacturing and Processing Activities; Section 13(a)(4)

§ 779.345   Exemption provided in section 13(a)(4).
§ 779.346   Requirements for exemption summarized.
§ 779.347   Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.
§ 779.348   Goods must be made at the establishment which sells them.
§ 779.349   The 85-percent requirement.
§ 779.350   The section 13(a)(4) exemption does not apply to service establishments.

Engaging in Contract Telegraph Agency Operations; Section 13(a)(11)

§ 779.351   Exemption provided.
§ 779.352   Requirements for exemption.

Classification of Sales and Establishments in Certain Industries

§ 779.353   Basis for classification.

Lumber and Building Materials Dealers

§ 779.354   Who may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.
§ 779.355   Classification of lumber and building materials sales.
§ 779.356   Application of exemptions to employees.

Coal Dealers

§ 779.357   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments; classification of coal sales.

Ice Manufacturers and Ice Dealers

§ 779.358   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.

Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers

§ 779.359   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.
§ 779.360   Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.
§ 779.361   Classification of other fuel oil sales.

Feed Dealers

§ 779.362   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.

Monument Dealers

§ 779.363   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.

Frozen-Food Locker Plants

§ 779.364   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.

Automotive Tire Establishments

§ 779.365   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.
§ 779.366   Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

Commercial Stationers

§ 779.367   Commercial stationers may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.
§ 779.368   Printing and engraving establishments not recognized as retail.

Funeral Homes

§ 779.369   Funeral home establishments may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

Cemeteries

§ 779.370   Cemeteries may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

Automobile, Truck and Farm Implement Sales and Services, and Trailer, Boat and Aircraft Sales

§ 779.371   Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(2).
§ 779.372   Nonmanufacturing establishments with certain exempt employees under section 13(b)(10).

Other Establishments for Which Special Exceptions or Exemptions Are Provided

§ 779.381   Establishments within special exceptions or exemptions.

Hotels and Motels

§ 779.382   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.
§ 779.383   “Hotel” and “motel” exemptions under section 13(b)(8).

Motion Picture Theaters

§ 779.384   May qualify as exempt establishments.

Seasonal Amusement or Recreational Establishments

§ 779.385   May qualify as exempt establishments.

Restaurants and Establishments Providing Food And Beverage Service

§ 779.386   Restaurants may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.
§ 779.387   “Restaurant” exemption under section 13(b) (8).
§ 779.388   Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees.

Subpart E—Provisions Relating to Certain Employees of Retail or Service Establishments


General Principles

§ 779.400   Purpose of subpart.

Executive, Administrative, and Professional Employees and Outside Salesmen

§ 779.401   Statutory provision.
§ 779.402   “Executive” and “administrative” employees defined.
§ 779.403   Administrative and executive employees in covered enterprises employed in other than retail or service establishments.
§ 779.404   Other section 13(a)(1) employees employed in covered enterprises.

Students, Learners, and Handicapped Workers

§ 779.405   Statutory provisions.
§ 779.406   “Student-learners”.
§ 779.407   Learners other than “student-learners”.
§ 779.408   “Full-time students”.
§ 779.409   Handicapped workers.

Employees Compensated Principally by Commissions

§ 779.410   Statutory provision.
§ 779.411   Employee of a “retail or service establishment”.
§ 779.412   Compensation requirements for overtime pay exemption under section 7(i).
§ 779.413   Methods of compensation of retail store employees.
§ 779.414   Types of employment in which this overtime pay exemption may apply.
§ 779.415   Computing employee's compensation for the representative period.
§ 779.416   What compensation “represents commissions.”
§ 779.417   The “representative period” for testing employee's compensation.
§ 779.418   Grace period for computing portion of compensation representing commissions.
§ 779.419   Dependence of the section 7(i) overtime pay exemption upon the level of the employee's “regular rate” of pay.
§ 779.420   Recordkeeping requirements.
§ 779.421   Basic rate for computing overtime compensation of nonexempt employees receiving commissions.

Subpart F—Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises


General

§ 779.500   Purpose of subpart.

Equal Pay Provisions

§ 779.501   Statutory provisions.

Child Labor Provisions

§ 779.502   Statutory provisions; regulations in part 1500 of this title.
§ 779.503   The retailer and section 12(a).
§ 779.504   The retailer and section 12(c).
§ 779.505   “Oppressive child labor” defined.
§ 779.506   Sixteen-year minimum.
§ 779.507   Fourteen-year minimum.
§ 779.508   Eighteen-year minimum.

Driver or Driver's Helper Making Local Deliveries

§ 779.509   Statutory provision.
§ 779.510   Conditions that must be met for section 13(b)(11) exemption.
§ 779.511   “Finding by Secretary.”

Records to be Kept by Employers

§ 779.512   The recordkeeping regulations.
§ 779.513   Order and form of records.
§ 779.514   Period for preserving records.
§ 779.515   Regulations should be consulted.


Authority:   Secs. 1–19, 52 Stat. 1060, as amended; 75 Stat. 65; Sec. 29(B), Pub. L. 93–259, 88 Stat. 55; 29 U.S.C. 201–219.

Source:   35 FR 5856, Apr. 9, 1970, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A—General
top
Introductory
top
§ 779.0   Purpose of interpretative bulletin.
top

It is the purpose of this part to provide an official statement of the views of the Department of Labor with respect to the application and meaning of those provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, hereinafter referred to as the Act, which govern rights and obligations of employees and employers in the various enterprises in which retail sales of goods or services are made. The application of the Act to employment in such enterprises was greatly broadened by amendments effective September 3, 1961. The Act's application was extended to employment in additional retail and service enterprises by the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1966, effective February 1, 1967. Under the amended Act, there are many employees employed by retail or service establishments and in enterprises having such establishments engaged in the retail selling of goods or services who must be employed in compliance with its provisions. It is an objective of this part to make available in one place, for the guidance of those who may be concerned with the provisions of the law, the official interpretations of these provisions by which the Department of Labor will be guided in carrying out its responsibilities under the Act.

§ 779.1   General scope of the Act.
top

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, is a Federal statute of general application which establishes minimum wage, maximum hours, overtime pay, equal pay, and child labor requirements that apply as provided in the Act. Employers and employees in enterprises in which retail sales of goods or services are made need to know how the Act applies to employment in these enterprises so that they may understand their rights and obligations under the law. All employees whose employment has the relationship to interstate or foreign commerce which the Act specifies are subject to the prescribed labor standards unless specifically exempted from them. Employers having such employees are required to comply with the Act's provisions in this regard and with specified recordkeeping requirements contained in Part 516 of this chapter. The law authorizes the Department of Labor to investigate for compliance and, in the event of violations, to supervise the payment of unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation owing to any employee. The law also provides for enforcement in the courts.

§ 779.2   Previous and new coverage.
top

Under the Act as amended in 1966, an employer may have some employees subject to its minimum wages, maximum hours, overtime pay, equal pay, or child labor provisions who would be covered by such provisions under the prior law even if the amendments had not been enacted, and other employees whose coverage under such provisions was provided for the first time by the 1966 amendments. As explained in subparts B and C such provisions of the amended Act may apply to an employee by reason of the activities in which he is individually engaged, or because he is employed in an enterprise whose activities satisfy the conditions prescribed in the law prior to the amendments. On the other hand, such provisions of the amended Act may apply to an employee solely because he is employed in an enterprise whose activities satisfy only the conditions provided in the Act as it was amended in 1966. Previously covered employment in retail and service enterprise is subject to different monetary standards than newly covered employment in such enterprises until February 1, 1971. On and after that date, every such employee subject to the minimum wage provisions will be entitled to not less than $1.60 an hour. However, beginning February 1, 1969, every such employee subject to the overtime provisions is entitled to overtime pay for all hours worked in excess of 40 in a workweek at a rate not less than one and one-half times his regular rate of pay. During the period for which different minimum wage provisions were made applicable, beginning with the effective date of the 1966 amendments on February 1, 1967, and ending on January 31, 1971, a lower minimum wage rate is authorized for employees in employment brought under the minimum wage provisions of the Act for the first time by the amendments than for those subject to the minimum wage provisions under the prior Act. Also, in the period beginning with the effective date of the amendments and ending on January 31, 1969, employees in employment brought under the overtime pay provisions for the first time by the amendments could be employed for a longer workweek without overtime pay, as specified in the Act. Accordingly, employers who do not wish to pay aIl covered employees for employment during such periods the minimum wages and overtime pay required for employment covered under the prior provisions will need to identify those employees who are covered under the prior provisions and those who are covered under the new provisions when wages are computed and paid under the Act.

§ 779.3   Pay standards for employees subject to previous coverage of the Act.
top

Before the 1966 amendments, the Act applied, as it still applies, to employees individually engaged in interstate or foreign commerce or in the production of goods for such commerce, and to employees in certain enterprises, including enterprises in which retail sales of goods or services are made. The tests by which coverage based on the employee's individual activities is determined were not changed by the 1966 amendments and are described in subpart B of this part. An employee in an enterprise whose activities satisfy the conditions prescribed in the law prior to the 1966 amendments (discussed in subpart C) is covered under the present Act. Any employee whose employment satisfies the tests by which individual or enterprise coverage is determined under the Act prior to the 1966 amendments and who would not have come within some exemption in the law prior to the amendments is subject to the monetary provisions prescribed in the law for previously covered employees and is entitled to a minimum wage of at least $1.40 an hour beginning February 1, 1967, and not less than $1.60 an hour beginning February 1, 1968, unless expressly exempted by some provision of the amended Act. (In each instance where there is an increase in the minimum wage, the new minimum wage rate becomes effective 12:01 a.m., on the date indicated.) Such an employee is also entitled to overtime pay for hours worked in excess of 40 in any workweek at a rate not less than one and one-half times his regular rate of pay. (Minimum wage rates in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa are governed by special provisions of the Act. Information on these rates is available at any office of the Wage and Hour Division.)

§ 779.4   Pay standards for newly covered employment.
top

There are many employees of retailers as well as other employees who would not be subject to the minimum wage or overtime pay provisions of the Act as it was prior to the 1966 amendments, either because of their individual activities or because of the activities of the enterprise in which they are employed, but who are brought under the minimum wage or overtime provisions, or both, for the first time by the changed enterprise coverage provisions or changes in exemptions, or both, which were enacted as part of the amendments and made effective February 1, 1967. The following pay standards apply to this newly covered employment, unless a specific exemption has been retained or provided in the amendments; such employees must be paid not less than the minimum wages for hours worked and not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay for overtime, as shown in the following schedule:

Minimum wageBeginning
$1.00 an hourFebruary 1, 1967.
$1.15 an hourFebruary 1, 1968.
$1.30 an hourFebruary 1, 1969.
$1.45 an hourFebruary 1, 1970.
$1.60 an hourFebruary 1, 1971 and thereafter.

In each instance where there is an increase in the minimum wage, the new minimum wage rate becomes effective 12:01 a.m., on the date indicated. (Minimum wage rates for newly covered employees in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa are set by wage order under special industry committee procedures. Information on these rates and their effective dates may be obtained at any office of the Wage and Hour Division.)

Overtime payBeginning
After 44 hours in a workweekFeb. 1, 1967.
After 42 hours in a workweekFeb. 1, 1968.
After 40 hours in a workweek and thereafterFeb. 1, 1969.

In each instance where a new overtime pay standard is applicable, it shall be effective as to any workweek beginning on or after the date indicated.

§ 779.5   Matters discussed in this part.
top

This part discusses generally the provisions of the Act which govern its application to employers and employees in enterprises and establishments that make retail sales of goods or services. It discusses in some detail those provisions of the Act which refer specifically to such employers and employees and such enterprises or establishments. The criteria for determining the employments in which these employers and employees may be subject to the law are discussed in subparts B and C of this part and the criteria for exclusion from its provisions under specific exemptions are discussed in subpart D of this part. Other provisions of special interest to retailers and their employees are discussed in subparts E and F of this part.

§ 779.6   Matters discussed in other interpretative bulletins.
top

Bulletins having general application to others subject to the law as well as to retailers and their employees have been issued on a number of subjects of general interest. These will be found in other parts of this chapter of the Code of Federal Regulations. Reference should be made to them for guidance on matters which they discuss in detail and which this part does not undertake to do. They include part 776 of this chapter, discussing general coverage, including the employer-employee relationship under the Act; part 531 of this chapter, discussing methods of payment of wages; part 778 of this chapter, discussing computation and payment of overtime compensation; part 785 of this chapter, discussing the calculation of hours worked; and part 800 of this chapter, discussing equal pay for equal work.

Interpretations of the Law
top
§ 779.7   Significance of official interpretations.
top

The regulations in this part contain the official interpretations of the Department of Labor with respect to the application under described circumstances of the provisions of law which they discuss. These interpretations indicate the construction of the law which the Secretary of Labor and the Administrator believe to be correct and which will guide them in the performance of their duties under the Act unless and until they are otherwise directed by authoritative decisions of the courts or conclude, upon reexamination of an interpretation, that it is incorrect.

§ 779.8   Basic support for interpretations.
top

The ultimate decisions on interpretations of the Act are made by the courts ( Mitchell v. Zachry, 362 U.S. 310; Kirschbaum v. Walling, 316 U.S. 517). Court decisions supporting interpretations contained in this bulletin are cited where it is believed they may be helpful. On matters which have not been determined by the courts, it is necessary for the Secretary of Labor and the Administrator to reach conclusions as to the meaning and the application of provisions of the law in order to carry out their responsibilities of administration and enforcement ( Skidmore v. Swift, 323 U.S. 134). In order that these positions may be made known to persons who may be affected by them, official interpretations are issued by the Administrator on the advice of the Solicitor of Labor, as authorized by the Secretary (Reorg. Pl. 6 of 1950, 64 Stat. 1263; Gen. Ord. 45A, May 24, 1950; 15 FR 3290). As included in the regulations in this part, these interpretations are believed to express the intent of the law as reflected in its provisions as constructed by the courts and evidenced by its legislative history. References to pertinent legislative history are made in this part where it appears that they will contribute to a better understanding of the interpretations.

§ 779.9   Reliance on interpretations.
top

The interpretations of the law contained in this part are official interpretations which may be relied upon as provided in section 10 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947. In addition, the Supreme Court has recognized that such interpretations of the Act “provide a practical guide to employers and employees as to how the office representing the public interest in its enforcement will seek to apply it” and “constitute a body of experience and informed judgment to which courts and litigants may properly resort for guidance.” Further, as stated by the Court: “Good administration of the Act and good judicial administration alike require that the standards of public enforcement and those for determining private rights shall be at variance only where justified by very good reasons.” ( Skidmore v. Swift, 323 U.S. 134.) Some of the interpretations in subpart D of this part relating to the scope of the exemption provided for retail or service establishments are interpretations of this exemption as it appeared in the original Act before amendment in 1949 and 1961, which have remained unchanged because they were consistent with the amendments. These interpretations may be said to have Congressional sanction because “When Congress amended the Act in 1949 it provided that pre-1949 rulings and interpretations by the Administrator should remain in effect unless inconsistent with the statute as amended. 63 Stat. 920.” ( Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U.S. 290.)

§ 779.10   Interpretations made, continued, and superseded by this part.
top

On and after publication of this part in theFederal Register,the interpretations contained therein shall be in effect and shall remain in effect until they are modified, rescinded, or withdrawn. This part supersedes and replaces the interpretations previously published in the  Federal Register  and Code of Federal Regulations as part 779 of this chapter. Prior opinions, rulings and interpretations and prior enforcement policies which are not inconsistent with the interpretations in this part or with the Fair Labor Standards Act as amended by the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1961 are continued in effect; all other opinions, rulings, interpretations, and enforcement policies on the subjects discussed in the interpretations in this part are rescinded and withdrawn. The interpretations in this part provide statements of general principles applicable to the subjects discussed and illustrations of the application of these principles to situations that frequently arise. They do not and cannot refer specifically to every problem which may be met by retailers in the application of the Act. The omission to discuss a particular problem in this part or in interpretations supplementing it should not be taken to indicate the adoption of any position by the Secretary of Labor or the Administrator with respect to such problem or to constitute an administrative interpretation or practice or enforcement policy. Questions on matters not fully covered by this part may be addressed to the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210, or to any Regional or District Office of the Division.

Some Basic Definitions
top
§ 779.11   General statement.
top

The meaning and application of the provisions of law discussed in this part depend in large degree on the definitions of terms used in these provisions. The Act itself defines some of these terms. Others have been defined and construed in decisions of the courts. In the following sections some of these basic definitions are set forth for ready reference in connection with the part's discussion of the various provisions in which they appear. Some of these definitions and their application are considered in detail in other interpretative bulletins. The application of the others is considered in the sections of this part where the particular provisions containing the defined terms are discussed.

§ 779.12   Commerce.
top

Commerce as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade, commerce, transportation, transmission or communication among the several States or between any State and any place outside thereof.” (For the definition of “State” see §779.16.) The application of this definition and the kinds of activities which it includes are discussed at length in the interpretative bulletin on general coverage of the Act, part 776 of this chapter.

§ 779.13   Production.
top

To understand the meaning of “production” of goods for commerce as used in the Act it is necessary to refer to the definition in section 3(j) of the term “produced.” A detailed discussion of the application of the term as defined is contained in the interpretative bulletin on general coverage of the Act, part 776 of this chapter. Section 3(j) provides that “produced” as used in the Act “means produced, manufactured, mined, handled, or in any other manner worked on in any State; and for the purposes of this Act an employee shall be deemed to have been engaged in the production of goods if such employee was employed in producing, manufacturing, mining, handling, transporting, or in any other manner working on such goods, or in any closely related process or occupation directly essential to the production thereof, in any State.” (For the definition of “State,” see §779.16.)

§ 779.14   Goods.
top

The definition in section 3(i) of the Act states that goods, as used in the Act, means “goods (including ships and marine equipment), wares, products, commodities, merchandise, or articles or subjects of commerce of any character, or any part or ingredient thereof, but does not include goods after their delivery into the actual physical possession of the ultimate consumer thereof other than a producer, manufacturer, or processor thereof.” The interpretative bulletin on general coverage of the Act, part 776 of this chapter, contains a detailed discussion of the application of this definition and what is included in it.

§ 779.15   Sale and resale.
top

(a) Section 3(k) of the Act provides that “Sale” or “sell”, as used in the Act, “includes any sale, exchange, contract to sell, consignment for sale, shipment for sale, or other disposition.” Since “goods”, as defined, includes any part or ingredient of goods (see §779.14), a “resale” of goods includes their sale in a different form than when first purchased or sold, such as the sale of goods of which they have become a component part ( Arnold v. Kanowsky, 361 U.S. 388). The Act, in section 3(n), provides one exception to this rule by declaring that “resale”, as used in the Act, “shall not include the sale of goods to be used in residential or farm building construction, repair, or maintenance: Provided, That the sale is recognized as a bona fide retail sale in the industry.” A resale of goods is not confined to resale of the goods as such, but under section 3(k) may include an “other disposition” of the goods in which they are disposed of in a transaction of a different kind; thus the sale by a restaurant to an airline of prepared meals to be served in flight to passengers whose tickets entitle them to a “complimentary” meal is a sale of goods “for resale”. ( Mitchell v. Sherry Corine Corp., 264 F 2d 831 (C.A. 4), cert. denied 360 U.S. 934.)

(b) In construing section 3(s)(1) of the Act as it was prior to the 1966 amendments it should be noted that section 3(n) of the prior Act defined “resale” by declaring that this term, “except as used in subsection (s)(1), shall not include the sale of goods to be used in residential or farm building construction, repair, or maintenance: Provided, That the sale is recognized as a bona fide retail sale in the industry.” Thus, although section 3(n) of the prior Act also provided the one exception to the meaning of “resale”, it made clear that the exception was inapplicable in determining under section 3(s)(1) of the prior Act, “if such enterprise purchases or receives goods for resale that move or have moved across State lines (not in deliveries from the reselling establishment) which amount in total volume to $250,000 or more”. The application of the inflow test under section 3(s) (1) of the prior Act is discussed fully in subpart C of this part.

§ 779.16   State.
top

As used in the Act, State means “any State of the United States or the District of Columbia or any Territory or possession of the United States” (Act, section 3(c)). The application of this definition in determining questions of coverage under the Act's definition of “commerce” and “produced” (see §§779.12, 779.13) is discussed in the interpretative bulletin on general coverage, part 776 of this chapter. This definition is also important in determining whether goods “for resale” purchased or received by an enterprise move or have moved across State lines within the meaning of former section 3(s)(1) of the Act (prior to the 1966 amendments) and whether sales of goods or services are “made within the State” within the meaning of the retail or service establishment exemption in section 13(a)(2), as discussed in subpart D of this part.

§ 779.17   Wage and wage payments to tipped employees.
top

Section 3(m) of the Act provides that as used in the Act, “wage” paid to any employee:

includes the reasonable cost, as determined by the Secretary of Labor, to the employer of furnishing such employee with board, lodging, or other facilities, if such board, lodging or other facilities are customarily furnished by such employer to his employees: Provided, That the cost of board, lodging, or other facilities shall not be included as a part of the wage paid to any employee to the extent it is excluded therefrom under the terms of a bona fide collective-bargaining agreement applicable to the particular employee: Provided further, That the Secretary is authorized to determine the fair value of such board, lodging, or other facilities for defined classes of employees and in defined areas, based on average cost to the employer or to groups of employers similarly situated, or average value to groups of employees, or other appropriate measures of fair value. Such evaluations, where applicable and pertinent, shall be used in lieu of actual measure of cost in determining the wage paid to any employee. In determining the wage of a tipped employee, the amount paid such employee by his employer shall be deemed to be increased on account of tips by an amount determined by the employer, but not by an amount in excess of 50 per centum of the applicable minimum wage rate, except that in the case of an employee who (either himself or acting through his representative) shows to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the actual amount of tips received by him was less than the amount determined by the employer as the amount by which the wage paid him was deemed to be increased under this sentence, the amount paid such employee by his employer shall be deemed to have been increased by such lesser amount.

As explained in part 531 of this chapter, section 3(m) of the Act governs the payment of wages required by the Act, including payment in other than cash and in tips. Part 531 of this chapter contains the regulations under which the reasonable cost or fair value of such facilities furnished may be computed for inclusion as part of wages required by the Act. Section 3(m) provides a method for determining the wage of a “tipped employee” and this term as defined in section 3(t) of the Act “means any employee engaged in an occupation in which he customarily and regularly receives more than $20 a month in tips”. Regulations under which wage credits are permitted on account of tips paid to “tipped employees” are also contained in part 531 of this chapter.

§ 779.18   Regular rate.
top

As explained in the interpretative bulletin on overtime compensation, part 778 of this chapter, employees subject to the overtime pay provisions of the Act must generally receive for their overtime work in any workweek as provided in the Act not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act defines “regular rate” in the following language:

(e) As used in this section the regular rate at which an employee is employed shall be deemed to include all remuneration for employment paid to, or on behalf of, the employee, but shall not be deemed to include:

(1) Sums paid as gifts; payments in the nature of gifts made at Christmas time or on other special occasions, as a reward for service, the amounts of which are not measured by or dependent on hours worked, production, or efficiency;

(2) Payments made for occasional periods when no work is performed due to vacation, holiday, illness, failure of the employer to provide sufficient work, or other similar cause; reasonable payments for traveling expenses or other expenses, incurred by an employee in the furtherance of his employer's interests and properly reimbursable by the employer; and other similar payments to an employee which are not made as compensation for his hours of employment;

(3) Sums paid in recognition of services performed during a given period if either, (a) both the fact that payment is to be made and the amount of the payment are determined at the sole discretion of the employer at or near the end of the period and not pursuant to any prior contract, agreement, or promise causing the employee to expect such payments regularly; or (b) the payments are made pursuant to a bona fide profit-sharing plan or trust or bona fide thrift or savings plan, meeting the requirements of the Secretary of Labor set forth in appropriate regulation which he shall issue, having due regard among other relevant factors, to the extent to which the amounts paid to the employee are determined without regard to hours of work, production, or efficiency; or (c) the payments are talent fees (as such talent fees are defined and delimited by regulations of the Secretary) paid to performers, including announcers, on radio and television programs;

(4) Contributions irrevocably made by an employer to a trustee or third person pursuant to a bona fide plan for providing old age, retirement, life, accident, or health insurance or similar benefits for employees;

(5) Extra compensation provided by a premium rate paid for certain hours worked by the employee in any day or workweek because such hours are hours worked in excess of eight in a day or in excess of the maximum workweek applicable to such employee under subsection (a) or in excess of the employee's normal working hours or regular working hours, as the case may be;

(6) Extra compensation provided by a premium rate paid for work by the employee on Saturdays, Sundays, holidays, or regular days of rest, or on the sixth or seventh day of the workweek, where such premium rate is not less than one and one-half times the rate established in good faith for like work performed in nonovertime hours on other days; or

(7) Extra compensation provided by a premium rate paid to the employee, in pursuance of an applicable employment contract or collective-bargaining agreement, for work outside of the hours established in good faith by the contract or agreement as the basic, normal, or regular workday (not exceeding 8 hours) or workweek (not exceeding the maximum workweek applicable to such employee under subsection (a), where such premium rate is not less than one and one-half times the rate established in good faith by the contract or agreement for like work performed during such workday or workweek.

This definition, which is discussed at length in part 778 of this chapter, also governs the computation of “regular rate” for purposes of the special overtime exemption of certain commission employees of retail or service establishments which is contained in section 7(i) of the Act and is discussed in subpart E of this part.

§ 779.19   Employer, employee, and employ.
top

The Act's major provisions impose certain requirements and prohibitions on every “employer” subject to their terms. The employment by an “employer” of an “employee” is, to the extent specified in the Act, made subject to minimum wage and overtime pay requirements and to prohibitions against the employment of oppressive child labor. The Act provides its own definitions of “employer,” “employee”, and “employ”, under which “economic reality” rather than “technical concepts” determines whether there is employment subject to its terms ( Goldberg v. Whitaker House Cooperative, 366 U.S. 28; United States v. Silk, 331 U.S. 704; Rutherford Food Corp. v. McComb, 331 U.S. 722). An “employer”, as defined in section 3(d) of the Act, “includes any person acting directly or indirectly in the interest of an employer in relation to an employee but shall not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State (except with respect to employees of a State or a political subdivision thereof, employed (a) in a hospital, institution, or school referred to in the last sentence of subsection (r) of this section, or (b) in the operation of a railway or carrier referred to in such sentence), or any labor organization (other than when acting as an employer), or anyone acting in the capacity of officer or agent of such labor organization”. An “employee”, as defined in section 3(e) of the Act, “includes any individual employed by an employer” (except that the term is further qualified for purposes of counting man-days of employment by an employer in agriculture). “Employ”, as used in the Act, is defined in section 3(g) to include “to suffer or permit to work”. It should be noted, as explained in the interpretative bulletin on general coverage, part 776 of this chapter, that in appropriate circumstances two or more employers may be jointly responsible for compliance with the statutory requirements applicable to employment of a particular employee. It should also be noted that “employer”, “enterprise”, and “establishment” are not synonymous terms, as used in the Act. An employer may have an enterprise with more than one establishment, or he may have more than one enterprise, in which he employs employees within the meaning of the Act. Also, there may be different employers who employ employees in a particular establishment or enterprise.

§ 779.20   Person.
top

As used in the Act (including the definition of “enterprise” set forth in §779.21), “person” is defined as meaning “an individual, partnership, association, corporation, business trust, legal representative, or any organized group of persons.” (Act, section 3(a).)

§ 779.21   Enterprise.
top

(a) Section 3(r) of the Act provides, in pertinent part that “enterprise” as used in the Act:

means the related activities performed (either through unified operation or common control) by any person or persons for a common business purpose, and includes all such activities whether performed in one or more establishments or by one or more corporate or other organizational units including departments of an establishment operated through leasing arrangements, but shall not include the related activities performed for such enterprise by an independent contractor: Provided, That, within the meaning of this subsection, a retail or service establishment which is under independent ownership shall not be deemed to be so operated or controlled as to be other than a separate and distinct enterprise by reason of any arrangement, which includes, but is not necessarily limited to, an agreement, (a) that it will sell, or sell only, certain goods specified by a particular manufacturer, distributor, or advertiser, or (b) that it will join with other such establishments in the same industry for the purpose of the collective purchasing, or (c) that it will have the exclusive right to sell the goods or use the brand name of a manufacturer, distributor, or advertiser within a specified area, or by reason of the fact that it occupies premises leased to it by a person who also leases premises to other retail or service establishments  *  *  *

The scope and application of this definitional language is discussed in subpart C of this part.

(b) The 1966 amendments added two clauses to the above language of the definition to make it clear that “the activities performed by any person or persons” will be regarded as performed for a business purpose if they are performed:

(1) In connection with the operation of a hospital, an institution primarily engaged in the care of the sick, the aged, the mentally ill or defective who reside on the premises of such institution, a school for mentally or physically handicapped or gifted children, an elementary or secondary school, or an institution of higher education (regardless of whether or not such hospital, institution, or school is public or private or operated for profit or not for profit); or

(2) In connection with the operation of a street, suburban, or interurban electric railway, or local trolley or motorbus carrier, if the rates and services of such railway or carrier are subject to regulation by a State or local agency (regardless of whether or not such railway or carrier is public or private or operated for profit or not for profit).

A discussion of the scope and application of this added language is contained in part 776 of this chapter.

§ 779.22   Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.
top

The portions of the former and present definitions of “enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce” (contained in section 3(s) of the Act prior to the 1966 amendments and as amended in 1966) which are important to a determination of the application of provisions of the Act to employees employed by retailers generally and by certain retail or service establishments are as follows:

Previous coverage (prior to the 1966 amendments):

(s) Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce means any of the following in the activities of which employees are so engaged, including employees handling, selling, or otherwise working on goods that have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person:

(1) Any such enterprise which has one or more retail or service establishments if the annual gross volume of sales of such enterprise is not less than $1 million, exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated and if such enterprise purchases or receives goods for resale that move or have moved across State lines (not in deliveries from the reselling establishment) which amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more;

(5) Any gasoline service establishment if the annual gross volume of sales of such establishment is not less than $250,000, exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated:

Provided, That an establishment shall not be considered to be an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, or a part of an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, and the sales of such establishment shall not be included for the purpose of determining the annual gross volume of sales of any enterprise for the purpose of this subsection, if the only employees of such establishment are the owner thereof or persons standing in the relationship of parent, spouse, or child of such owner.

New coverage (beginning with the 1966 amendments):

(s) Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce means an enterprise which has employees engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, including employees handling, selling, or otherwise working on goods that have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person, and which:

(1) During the period February 1, 1967, through January 31, 1969, is an enterprise whose annual gross volume of sales made or business done is not less than $500,000 (exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated) or is a gasoline service establishment whose annual gross volume of sales is not less than $250,000 (exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated), and beginning February 1, 1969, is an enterprise whose annual gross volume of sales made or business done is not less than $250,000 (exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated);

(4) Is engaged in the operation of a hospital, an institution primarily engaged in the care of the sick, the aged, the mentally ill or defective who reside on the premises of such institution, a school for mentally or physically handicapped or gifted children, an elementary or secondary school, or an institution of higher education (regardless of whether or not such hospital, institution, or school is public or private or operated for profit or not for profit).

Any establishment which has as its only regular employees the owner thereof or the parent, spouse, child, or other member of the immediate family of such owner shall not be considered to be an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce or a part of such an enterprise, and the sales of such establishment shall not be included for the purpose of determining the annual gross volume of sales of any enterprise for the purpose of this subsection.

§ 779.23   Establishment.
top

As used in the Act, the term establishment, which is not specially defined therein, refers to a “distinct physical place of business” rather than to “an entire business or enterprise” which may include several separate places of business. This is consistent with the meaning of the term as it is normally used in business and in government, is judicially settled, and has been recognized in the Congress in the course of enactment of amendatory legislation ( Phillips v. Walling, 324 U.S. 490; Mitchell v. Bekins Van & Storage Co., 352 U.S. 1027; 95 Cong. Rec. 12505, 12579, 14877; H. Rept. No. 1453, 81st Cong., 1st Sess., p. 25). As appears more fully elsewhere in this part, this is the meaning of the term as used in sections 3(r), 3(s), 6(d), 7(i), 13(a), 13(b), and 14 of the Act.

§ 779.24   Retail or service establishment.
top

In the 1949 amendments to the Act, the term “retail or service establishment”, which was not previously defined in the law, was given a special definition for purposes of the Act. The legislative history of the 1961 and the 1966 amendments to the Act, which use the same term in a number of provisions relating to coverage and exemptions, indicates that no different meaning was intended by the term “retail or service establishment” as used in the new provisions from that already established by the Act's definition. On the contrary, the existing definition was reenacted in section 13(a)(2) of the Act as amended in 1961 and 1966 as follows: “A ‘retail or service establishment’ shall mean an establishment 75 per centum of whose annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services (or of both) is not for resale and is recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry”. The application of this definition, which has had much judicial construction since its original enactment, is considered at length in subpart D of this part. As is apparent from the quoted language, not every establishment which engages in retail selling of goods or services will constitute a “retail or service establishment” within the meaning of the Act.

Subpart B—Employment to Which the Act May Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage
top
General Principles
top
§ 779.100   Basic coverage in general.
top

Except as otherwise provided in specific exemptions, the minimum wage, maximum hours, overtime pay, equal pay, and child labor provisions of the Act have applied and continue to apply subsequent to the 1966 amendments to employees who are individually engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for such commerce as these terms are defined in the Act and to employees in certain enterprises described in the amended section 3(s) which were covered under section 3(s) of the Act prior to the amendments. Through the broadening of the definition of a covered enterprise the Act's coverage was extended to additional employees because of their employment in certain enterprises beginning February 1, 1967, and in certain other enterprises beginning February 1, 1969. Such covered enterprises are described in section 3(s) as enterprises engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce and further described in sections 3(s) (1) through (4) of the amended Act. A detailed discussion of the coverage of employees in those enterprises covered under the prior and amended Act of interest to the retail industry is contained in subpart C of this part. The employer must comply with the minimum wage and overtime requirements of the Act with respect to all employees who are covered either because they are individually engaged in interstate or foreign commerce or in the production of goods for such commerce, or because of their employment in an enterprise covered under the prior or amended enterprise definition of the Act, except those who may be denied one or both of these benefits by virtue of some specific exemption provision of the Act. Of special interest to the retailer in a covered enterprise is the exemption from the minimum wage and overtime provisions for certain small retail or service establishments of such enterprise. This exemption is applicable under the conditions and subject to exceptions stated in section 13(a) (2) of the Act to any retail or service establishment which has an annual dollar volume of sales of less than $250,000 (exclusive of certain excise taxes) even if the establishment is a part of an enterprise that is covered by the Act. This exemption and other exemptions of particular interest to retailers and their employees are discussed in subparts D and E of this part. The child labor provisions as they apply to retail or service businesses are discussed in subpart F of this part.

§ 779.101   Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions.
top

It is clear that Congress intended the Fair Labor Standards Act to be broad in its scope. “Breadth of coverage is vital to its mission.” ( Powell v. U.S. Cartridge Co., 339 U.S. 497.) An employer who claims an exemption under the Act has the burden of showing that it applies. ( Walling v. General Industries Co., 330 U.S. 545; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U.S. 290; Fleming v. Hawkeye Pearl Button Co., 113 F. 2d 52.) Conditions specified in the language of the Act are “explicit prerequisites to exemption.” ( Arnold v. Kanowsky, 361 U.S. 388.) “The details with which the exemptions in this Act have been made preclude their enlargement by implication.” ( Addison v. Holly Hill, 322 U.S. 60; Maneja v. Waialua, 349 U.S. 254.) Exemptions provided in the Act “are to be narrowly construed against the employer seeking to assert them” and their application limited to those who come plainly and unmistakably within their terms and spirit; this restricted or narrow construction of the exemptions is necessary to carry out the broad objectives for which the Act was passed. ( Phillips v. Walling, 324 U.S. 490; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., supra; Arnold v. Kanowsky, supra; Calaf v. Gonzalez, 127 F. 2d 934; Bowie v. Gonzalez, 117 F. 2d 11; Mitchell v. Stinson, 217 F. 2d 210; Fleming v. Hawkeye Pearl Button Co., 113 F. 2d 52.)

§ 779.102   Scope of this subpart.
top

The Act has applied since 1938 and continues to apply to all employees, not specifically exempted, who are engaged: (a) In interstate or foreign commerce or (b) in the production of goods for such commerce, which is defined to include any closely related process or occupation directly essential to such production. (See §§779.12–779.16 for definitions governing the scope of this coverage.) Prior to the 1961 amendments a retailer was not generally concerned with the coverage provisions as they applied to his individual employees because retail or service establishments ordinarily were exempt. However, in some cases such coverage was applicable as where employees were employed in central offices of warehouses of retail chain store systems and, therefore, were not exempt. (See §779.118.) Some exemptions for retail or service establishments were narrowed as a result of the 1961 amendments and further revised or eliminated by the 1966 amendments effective February 1, 1967. Therefore, discussion of the individual coverage provisions of the Act is pertinent and this subpart will discuss briefly the principles of such coverage with particular reference to employment in the retail or service trades. A more comprehensive discussion with respect to employees engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce may be found in part 776 of this chapter, the general coverage bulletin.

Employees Engaged in Commerce or in the Production of Goods for Commerce
top
§ 779.103   Employees “engaged in commerce.”
top

Employees are “engaged in commerce” within the meaning of the Act when they are performing work involving or related to the movement of persons or things (whether tangibles or intangibles, and including information and intelligence) among the several States or between any State and any place outside thereof. (The statutory definition of commerce is contained in section 3(b) of the Act and is set forth in §779.12.) The courts have made it clear that this includes every employee employed in the channels of such commerce or in activities so closely related to this commerce, as to be considered a part of it as a practical matter. (Court cases are cited in the discussion of this term in §§776.9–776.13 of this chapter). Typically, but not exclusively, employees engaged in interstate or foreign commerce include employees in distributing industries, such as wholesaling or retailing, who sell, handle or otherwise work on goods moving in interstate commerce as well as workers who order, receive, pack, ship, or keep records of such goods; clerical and other workers who regularly use the mails, telephone or telegraph for interstate communication; and employees who regularly travel across State lines while working.

§ 779.104   Employees “engaged in the production of goods for commerce.”
top

The activities constituting “production” within the meaning of the phrase “engaged in  *  *  * the production of goods for commerce” are defined in section 3(j) of the Act. (The statutory definition is set forth in §779.13.) The handling or otherwise working on goods intended for shipment out of the State, directly or indirectly, in engagement in the “production” of goods for commerce. Thus, employees in retail stores who sell, pack, or otherwise work on goods which are to be shipped or delivered outside of the State are engaged in the production of goods for commerce. Typically, but not exclusively, employees engaged in the production of goods for interstate or foreign commerce, include those who work in manufacturing, processing and distributing establishments, including wholesale or retail establishments, that produce goods for interstate or foreign commerce. This includes everyone, including office, management, sales and shipping personnel, and maintenance, custodial and protective employees, whether they are employed by the producer or an intermediary. Employees may be covered even if their employer does not ship his goods directly in such commerce. The goods may leave the State through another firm. The workers may produce goods which become a part or ingredient of goods shipped in interstate or foreign commerce by another firm. Also covered are workers who are engaged in a closely related process or occupation directly essential to such production. (See §779.105.)

§ 779.105   Employees engaged in activities “closely related” and “directly essential” to the production of goods for commerce.
top

Some employees are covered because their work, although not actually a part of such production, is “closely related” and “directly essential” to it. This group of employees includes bookkeepers, stenographers, clerks, accountants and auditors and other office and white collar workers, and employees doing payroll, timekeeping and time study work for the producer of goods; employees in the personnel, labor relations, advertising, promotion, and public relations activities of the producing enterprise; work instructors for the producer; employees maintaining, servicing, repairing or improving the buildings, machinery, equipment, vehicles or other facilities used in the production of goods for commerce, and such custodial and protective employees as watchmen, guards, firemen, patrolmen, caretakers, stockroom workers, and warehousemen; and transportation workers bringing supplies, materials, or equipment to the producer's premises, removing waste materials therefrom, or transporting materials or other goods, or performing such other transportation activities, as the needs of production may require. These examples are illustrative, rather than exhaustive, of the group of employees of a producer who are “engaged in the production of goods for commerce” by reason of performing activities closely related and directly essential to such production.

§ 779.106   Employees employed by an independent employer.
top

Where the work of an employee would be closely related and directly essential to the production of goods for commerce if he were employed by a producer of the goods, the mere fact that the employee is employed by an independent employer will not justify a different answer. (See §§776.17(c) and 776.19 of this chapter.)

§ 779.107   Goods defined.
top

The term goods is defined in section 3(i) of the Act and has a well established meaning under the Act since it has been contained in the statute from the date of its enactment in 1938. A comprehensive statement of the meaning of the term “goods” is contained in part 776 of this chapter, which also cites the court cases in which the term was construed. The statutory definition of “goods” is set forth in §779.14. It will be observed that the term “goods” includes any part or ingredient of the goods. Also that “goods” as defined in the Act are not limited to commercial goods, or articles of trade, or, indeed, to tangible property, but include “articles or subjects of commerce of any character.” Thus telegraphic messages have been held to be “goods” within the meaning of the Act ( Western Union Tel. Co. v. Lenroot, 323 U.S. 490). Some of the “articles or subjects of commerce” which fall within the definition of “goods” include written materials such as newspapers, magazines, brochures, pamphlets, bulletins, and announcements; written reports, fiscal and other statements and accounts, correspondence, and other documents; advertising, motion pictures, newspaper and radio copy; art work and manuscripts for publication; sample books, letterheads, envelopes, shipping tags, labels, checkbooks, blankbooks, book covers, advertising circulars, and wrappers and other packaging materials.

§ 779.108   Goods produced for commerce.
top

Goods are “produced for commerce” if they are “produced, manufactured, mined, handled or in any other manner worked on” in any State for sale, trade, transportation, transmission, shipment or delivery, to any place outside thereof. Goods are produced for commerce where the producer intends, hopes, expects, or has reason to believe that the goods or any unsegregated part of them will move (in the same or in an altered form or as a part or ingredient of other goods) in interstate or foreign commerce. If such movement of the goods in commerce can reasonably be anticipated by the producer when the goods are produced, it makes no difference whether he himself or the person to whom the goods are transferred puts the goods in interstate or foreign commerce. The fact that goods do move in interstate or foreign commerce is strong evidence that the producer intended, hoped, expected, or had reason to believe that they would so move. Goods produced to serve the movement of interstate commerce within the same State are also produced for commerce within the meaning of the Act, as explained in part 776 of this chapter.

§ 779.109   Amount of activities which constitute engaging in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.
top

The Act makes no distinction as to the percentage, volume, or amount of activities of either the employee or the employer which constitute engaging in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. However, an employee whose in-commerce or production activities are isolated, sporadic, or occasional and involve only insubstantial amounts of goods will not be considered “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce” by virtue of that fact alone. The law is settled that every employee whose activities in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, even though small in amount are regular and recurring, is considered “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce”.

§ 779.110   Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act.
top

The discussion in §§779.103 to 779.109 included general reference to types of employees in the retail or service field whose individual activities constitute engagement in interstate or foreign commerce or in the production of goods for such commerce within the meaning of the Act. There are many classes of employees customarily employed by retail or service establishments or enterprises whose individual activities ordinarily constitute engagement in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce within the meaning of the Act. The groups of employees discussed in the following §§779.111 to 779.118, are illustrative only. There are other employees whose activities may be covered; also there are other activities performed by the groups discussed which would result in individual coverage under the Act.

§ 779.111   Buyers and their assistants.
top

Buyers and their assistants, employed by retail businesses, as a regular part of their duties, generally travel across State lines, or use the mails, telegraph, or telephone for interstate communication to order goods; or they regularly send or receive, across State lines, written reports, messages or other documents. These activities of such employees constitute engagement “in commerce” within the meaning of the Act.

§ 779.112   Office employees.
top

Similarly office employees of retail businesses who regularly and recurrently check records of and make payments for goods shipped to their employer from outside of the State, or regularly and recurrently keep records of or otherwise work on the accounts of their employer's out-of-State customers, or who regularly and recurrently prepare or mail letters, checks, reports or other documents to out-of-State points, are engaged both in commerce and in the production of goods for commerce within the meaning of the Act. Likewise, timekeepers who regularly and recurrently prepare and maintain payrolls for and pay employees who are engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce are themselves engaged in covered activities.

§ 779.113   Warehouse and stock room employees.
top

Warehouse and stock room employees of retail businesses who regularly and recurrently engage in the loading or unloading of goods moving in commerce, or who regularly and recurrently handle, pack or otherwise work on goods that are destined to out-of-State points are engaged in covered activities.

§ 779.114   Transportation employees.
top

Transportation employees of retail businesses, such as truck drivers or truck drivers' helpers, who regularly and recurrently cross State lines to make deliveries or to pick up goods for their employer; or who regularly and recurrently pick up at rail heads, air, bus or other such terminals goods originating out of State, or deliver to such terminals goods destined to points out of State; and dispatchers who route, plan or otherwise control such out-of-State deliveries and pick ups, are engaged in interstate commerce within the meaning of the Act.

§ 779.115   Watchmen and guards.
top

Watchmen or guards employed by retail businesses who protect the warehouses, workshops, or store premises where goods moving in interstate or foreign commerce are kept or where goods are produced for such commerce, are covered under the Act.

§ 779.116   Custodial and maintenance employees.
top

Custodial and maintenance employees who perform maintenance and custodial work on the machinery, equipment, or premises where goods regularly are produced for commerce or from which goods are regularly shipped in interstate commerce are engaged in covered activities.

§ 779.117   Salesmen and sales clerks.
top

A salesman or a sales clerk who regularly and recurrently takes orders for, or sells, or selects merchandise for delivery to points outside the State or which are to be shipped or delivered to a customer from a point outside the State, i.e. drop shipments; or who wraps, packs, addresses or otherwise prepares goods for out-of-State shipments is performing covered activities.

§ 779.118   Employees providing central services for multi-unit organizations.
top

Employees providing central services for a multiunit organization may be engaged both “in commerce” and “in the production of goods for commerce” within the meaning of the Act. For example, employees engaged in work relating to the coordinated purchasing, warehousing and distribution (and in the administrative and clerical work relating to such activities) for various retail units of a chain are covered under the Act. (See Phillips Co. v. Walling, 324 U.S. 490; Walling v. Jacksonville Paper Co., 317 U.S. 564, affirming, 128 F. 2d 935 (CA–5); Mitchell v. C. & P. Stores, 286 F. 2d 109 (CA–5); Mitchell v. E. G. Shinner & Co., Inc., 221 F. 2d 260 (CA–7); Donovan v. Shell Oil Co., 168 F. 2d 776 (CA–8).) In addition, employees who regularly and recurrently correspond and maintain records of activities of out-of-State stores and such employees as traveling auditors, inventory men, window display men, etc., who regularly travel from State to State in the performance of their duties are covered under the Act. (See Mitchell v. Kroger Co., 248 F. 2d 935 (CA–8).)

§ 779.119   Exempt occupations.
top

Of course, it should be noted that although employees may be engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce within the meaning of the Act, they may be exempt from the Act's minimum wage or overtime provisions (or both). For a complete list of such exemptions the Act should be consulted. Those exemptions, however, which are of particular interest to employers and employees in the retail field are discussed in subparts D, E, and F of this part.

Subpart C—Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage
top
Enterprise; the Business Unit
top
§ 779.200   Coverage expanded by 1961 and 1966 amendments.
top

The 1961 amendments for the first time since the enactment of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 provided that all employees in a particular business unit are covered by the Act. Prior to the 1961 amendments each employee's coverage depended on whether that employee's activities were in commerce or constituted the production of goods for commerce. All employees employed in an “enterprise” described in section 3(s)(1) through (5) of the Act as it was amended in 1961 and section 3(s)(1) through (4) of the Act as amended in 1966 are also covered. Thus, it is necessary to consider the meaning of the term “enterprise” as used in the Act.

§ 779.201   The place of the term “enterprise” in the Act.
top

The term “enterprise” is defined in section 3(r) of the Act and, wherever used in the Act, is governed by this definition. (§779.21(a) provides that portion of the definition of “enterprise” which is pertinent with respect to retail and service enterprises.) The term is a key in determining the applicability of the Act to these businesses. The “enterprise” is the unit for determining whether the conditions of section 3(s)(1) through (5) of the prior Act and section 3(s)(1) through (4) of the amended Act, including, where applicable, the requisite dollar volume are met. The “enterprise” is also the unit for determining which employees not individually covered by the Act are entitled to the minimum wage, overtime, and equal pay benefits, and to the child labor protection, under sections 6, 7, and 12 of the Act. In general, if the “enterprise” comes within any of the categories described in section 3(s)(1) through (5) of the prior Act or section 3(s)(1) through (4) of the amended Act, all employees employed in the “enterprise” are covered by the Act and, regardless of their duties, are entitled to the Act's benefits unless a specific exemption applies.

§ 779.202   Basic concepts of definition.
top

Under the definition, the “enterprise” consists of “the related activities performed  *  *  * for a common business purpose.” All of the activities comprising the enterprise must be “related.” Activities serving a single business purpose may be related, although different, but other activities which are not related are not included in the enterprise. The definition makes clear that the enterprise includes all such related activities which are performed through “unified operation” or “common control.” This is true even if they are performed by more than one person, or in more than one establishment, or by more than one corporate or other organizational unit. Specifically included, as a part of the enterprise, are departments of an establishment operated through leasing arrangements. On the other hand, the definition excludes from the “enterprise” activities only performed “for” the enterprise rather than as a part of it by an independent contractor even if they are related to the activities of the enterprise. Also, it makes clear that a truly independent retail or service establishment does not become a part of a larger enterprise merely because it enters into certain types of franchise or collective purchasing arrangements or because it has a common landlord with other such retail establishments.

§ 779.203   Distinction between “enterprise,” “establishment,” and “employer.”
top

The coverage, exemption and other provisions of the Act depend, in part, on the scope of the terms employer, establishment, or enterprise. As explained more fully in part 776 of this chapter, these terms are not synonymous. The term employer has been defined in the Act since its inception and has a well established meaning. As defined in section 3(d), it includes, with certain stated exceptions, any person acting directly or indirectly in the interest of an employer in relation to an employee. (See §779.19.) The term establishment means a distinct physical place of business rather than an entire business or enterprise. (See §779.23.) The term enterprise was not used in the Act prior to the 1961 amendments, but the careful definition and the legislative history of the 1961 and 1966 amendments provide guidance as to its meaning and application. As defined in the Act, the term enterprise is roughly descriptive of a business rather than of an establishment or of an employer although on occasion the three may coincide. The enterprise may consist of a single establishment (see §779.204(a)) which may be operated by one or more employers; or it may be composed of a number of establishments which may be operated by one or more employers (see §779.204(b)). The enterprise is not necessarily coextensive with the entire business activities of an employer; a single employer may operate more than one enterprise (see §779.204(c)). The Act treats as separate enterprises different businesses which are unrelated to each other even if they are operated by the same employer.

§ 779.204   Common types of “enterprise.”
top

(a) The single establishment business. In the simplest type of organization—the entire business ordinarily is one enterprise. The entire business activity of the single owner-employer may be performed in one establishment, as in the typical independently owned and controlled retail store. In that case the establishment and the enterprise are one and the same. All of the activities of the store are “related” and are performed for a single business purpose and there is both unified operation and common control. The entire business is the unit for applying the statutory tests. If the coverage tests are met, all of the employees employed by the establishment are employed in the enterprise and will be entitled to the benefits of the Act unless otherwise exempt.

(b) The multiunit business. In many cases, as in the typical chain of retail stores, one company conducts its single business in a number of establishments. All of the activities ordinarily are related and performed for one business purpose, the single company which owns the chain also controls the entire business, and the entire business is a single enterprise. The dollar volume of the entire business from all of its establishments is added together to determine whether the requisite dollar volume tests are met. If the coverage tests are met, all of the employees employed in the business will be entitled to the benefits of the Act unless otherwise exempt.

(c) Complex business organizations. In complex retail and service organizations, questions may arise as to whether certain activities are a part of a particular enterprise. In some cases one employer may operate several separate enterprises; in others, several employers may conduct their business activities in such a manner that they are part of a single enterprise. The answer, in each case, as to whether or not the “enterprise” includes certain activities will depend upon whether the particular activities are “related” to the business purpose of such enterprise and whether they are performed with its other activities through “unified operation” or “common control,” or whether, on the other hand, they are performed for a separate and distinct business purpose. As the Senate Report states,

related activities conducted by separate business entities will be considered a part of the same enterprise where they are joined either through unified operation or common control into a unified business system or economic unit to serve a common business purpose.

(S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 41; see also H. Rept. 1366, 89th Cong., 2d Sess., p. 9.) §§779.205 through 779.211 discuss the terms of the definition and may aid in making these determinations.

Related Activities
top
§ 779.205   Enterprise must consist of “related activities.”
top

The enterprise must consist of certain “related activities” performed for a common business purpose; activities which are not “related” are not a part of the enterprise even if performed by the same employer. Moreover, even if activities are “related” they may be excluded from the enterprise if they are performed only “for” the enterprise and not as a part of it by an independent contractor. This is discussed separately in §779.206.

§ 779.206   What are “related activities.”
top

(a) The Senate Report on the 1961 amendments states as follows, with respect to the meaning of related activities:

Within the meaning of this term, activities are “related” when they are the same or similar, such as those of the individual retail or service stores in a chain, or departments of an establishment operated through leasing arrangements. They are also “related” when they are auxiliary and service activities such as central office and warehousing activities and bookkeeping, auditing, purchasing, advertising and other services. Likewise, activities are “related” when they are part of a vertical structure such as the manufacturing, warehousing, and retailing of a particular product or products under unified operation or common control for a common business purpose. (Senate Report No. 145, 87th Cong., 1st Sess., Page 41.)

Thus, activities will be regarded as “related” when they are the same or similar or when they are auxiliary or service activities such as warehousing, bookkeeping, purchasing, advertising, including, generally, all activities which are necessary to the operation and maintenance of the particular business. So also, all activities which are performed as a part of the unified business operation will be “related,” including, in appropriate cases, the manufacturing, warehousing, and distribution of its goods, the repair and maintenance of its equipment, machinery and its premises, and all other activities which are performed for the common business purpose of the enterprise. The Senate Report on the 1966 amendments makes it plain that related, even if somewhat different, business activities can frequently be part of the same enterprise, and that activities having a reasonable connection with the major purpose of an enterprise would be considered related. (Senate Report No. 1487, 89th Cong., 2d Sess., Page 7.) A more comprehensive discussion of “related activities” will be found in part 776 of this chapter.

(b) Generally, the answer to the question whether particular activities are “related” or not, will depend in each case upon whether the activities serve a business purpose common to all the activities of the enterprise, or whether they serve a separate and unrelated business purpose. For example, where a company operates retail or service establishments, and also engages in a separate and unrelated construction business, the construction activities will not be “related” and will constitute a separate enterprise if they are conducted independently and apart from the retail operations. Where, however, the retail and construction activities are conducted for a common business purpose, they may be “related,” and if they are performed through unified operation or common control, they will be a part of a single enterprise. Thus, a retail store enterprise may engage in construction activities as an additional outlet for building materials which it sells, or otherwise to serve its retail operations. It may act as its own contractor in constructing or reconstructing its own stores and related facilities. In such a case, the construction activities will be “related” activities. Other examples may also be cited. The answer in each case will necessarily depend upon all the facts.

§ 779.207   Related activities in retail operations.
top

In the case of an enterprise which has one or more retail or service establishments, all of the activities which are performed for the furtherance of the common business purpose of operating the retail or service establishments are “related activities.” It is not material that the enterprise sells different goods or provides different services, or that it operates separate retail or service establishments. As stated in the definition, the enterprise includes all related activities whether performed “in one or more establishments.” Since the activities performed by one retail or service establishment are the “same or similar” to the activities performed by another, they are, as such, “related activities.” (See Senate Report No. 145, 87th Cong. 1st Sess. p. 41.) For example, in operations of a single retailing business a drug store may sell a large variety of different products, and a grocery store may sell clothing and furniture and other goods. Clearly all of these activities are “related.” Similarly it is clear that all activities of a department store are “related activities,” even if the store sells a great variety of different types of goods and services and even if, as in some cases, the departmentalized business is conducted in more than one location, as where the department selling garden supplies or electrical appliances is located on separate premises. Whether on the same premises or at separate locations, the activities involved in retail selling of goods or services, of any type, are related activities and they will be considered one enterprise where they are performed, through unified operation or common control, for a common business purpose.

§ 779.208   Auxiliary activities which are “related activities.”
top

As stated in Senate Report No. 145, 87th Congress, 1st Session, cited in §779.206, auxiliary and service activities, such as central office and warehousing activities and bookkeeping, auditing, purchasing, advertising and other similar services, also are “related activities.” When such activities are performed through unified operation or common control, for a common business purpose, they will be included in the enterprise. The following are some additional examples of auxiliary activities which are “related activities” and which may be included in the enterprise:

(a) Credit rating and collection services;

(b) Promotional activities including advertising, sign painting, display services, stamp redemptions, and prize contests;

(c) Maintenance and repair services of plant machinery and equipment including painting, decorating, and similar services;

(d) Store or plant engineering, site location and related survey activities;

(e) Detective, guard, watchmen, and other protective services;

(f) Delivery services;

(g) The operation of employee or customer parking lots;

(h) The recruitment, hiring and training activities, and other managerial services;

(i) Recreational and health facilities for customers or employees including eating and drinking facilities (note that employees primarily engaged in certain food service activities in retail establishments may be exempt from the overtime provisions under section 13(b)(18) of the Act if the specific conditions are met; see §779.388);

(j) The operation of employee benefit and insurance plans; and

(k) Repair and alteration services on goods for sale or sold to customers.

§ 779.209   Vertical activities which are “related activities.”
top

(a) The Senate Report also states (see §779.206 that activities are “related” when they are “part of a vertical structure such as the manufacturing, warehousing, and retailing of a particular product or products.” Where such activities are performed through unified operation or common control for a common business purpose they will be regarded as a part of the enterprise.

(b) Whether activities are vertically “related” activities and part of a single enterprise, or whether they constitute separate businesses are separate enterprises, depends upon the facts in each case. In all of these cases of so-called “vertical operations,” the determination whether the activities are “related,” depends upon the extent to which the various business activities, such as a wholesaling and retailing or manufacturing and retailing, are interrelated and interdependent and are performed to serve a business objective common to all. The mere fact that they are under common ownership is not, by itself, sufficient to bring them within the same enterprise. Thus, where a manufacturing business is carried on separately from and wholly independently of a retail business, with neither serving the business purpose of the other, they are separate businesses even if they are under common ownership. However, where the manufacturing operations are performed in substantial part for the purpose of distributing the goods through the retail stores, or the retail outlet serves to carry out a business purpose of the manufacturing plant, retailing and manufacturing will be “related” activities and performed for a “common business purpose,” and they will be a single enterprise if they are performed through unified operations or common control.

(c) In these cases of “vertical operations” a practical judgment will be required to determine whether the activities are maintained and operated as separate and distinct businesses with different objectives or whether they, in fact, constitute a single integrated business enterprise. The answer necessarily will depend upon all the facts in each case.

§ 779.210   Other activities which may be part of the enterprise.
top

(a) An enterprise may perform certain activities that appear entirely foreign to its principal business but which may be a part of the enterprise because of the manner in which they are performed. In some cases these activities may be a very minor and incidental part of its business operations. For example a retail store may accept payments of utility bills, provide a notarial service, sell stamps, bus and theater tickets, or travellers' checks, etc. These and other activities may be entirely different from the enterprise's principal business but they may be performed on the same premises and by the same employees or otherwise under such circumstances as to be a part of the enterprise.

(b) Sometimes such activities are performed as an adjunct to the principal business to create good will or to attract customers. In other cases, the businessman may engage in them primarily for the additional revenue. Some such foreign activities may be conducted in a more elaborate manner, as where the enterprise operates a bus stop or a post office substation as an adjunct to a principal business such as a hotel or a retail store. Where in such a case the activities are performed in a physically separate “establishment” (see §§779.303–779.308) from the other business activities of the enterprise and are functionally operated as a separate business, separately controlled, with separate employees, separate records, and a distinct business objective of its own, they may constitute a separate enterprise. Where, however, such activities are intermingled with the other activities of the enterprise and have a reasonable connection to the same business purpose they will be a part of the enterprise.

§ 779.211   Status of activities which are not “related.”
top

Activities which are not related even if performed by the same employer are not included as a part of the enterprise. The receipts from the unrelated activities will not be counted toward the annual dollar volume of sales or business under section 3(s) and the employees performing such unrelated activities will not be covered merely because they work for the same employer. Common ownership standing alone does not bring unrelated activities within the scope of the same enterprise. If, for example, one individual owns or controls a bank, a filing station, and a factory, the mere fact of common ownership will not make them one enterprise. However, if it appears that there is a reasonable relationship of all the activities to a single business purpose a different conclusion might be warranted. Activities which are not “related” will be treated separately for purposes of the tests contained in section 3(s)(1) through (5) of the prior Act and section 3(s)(1) through (4) of the amended Act. For example, in the case where a single company operates retail grocery stores and also engages in an unrelated business of constructing homes, one “enterprise” for purposes of section 3(s)(1) of both the prior and the amended Act will consist of the retail grocery stores and any activities related to them, and home construction activities will constitute a separate enterprise. The latter will not be included in determining whether the retail business enterprise meets the conditions of section 3(s)(1), and the construction employees will not be covered merely because the retail business is covered. The construction business will be considered separately under section 3(s)(4) of the poor Act and section 3(s)(3) of the amended Act.

Common Business Purpose
top
§ 779.212   Enterprise must consist of related activities performed for a “common business purpose.”
top

The related activities described in section 3(r) as included in the statutory enterprise are those performed for a “common business purpose.” (See the comprehensive discussion in 29 CFR part 776.) The term “common business purpose” as used in the definition does not have a narrow concept and is not intended to be limited to a single business establishment or a single type of business. As pointed out above, retailing, wholesaling and manufacturing may, under certain circumstances be engaged in for a “common business purpose.” (See §779.209.) An example was also cited where retailing and construction were performed for a common business purpose. (See §779.206.) On the other hand, it is clear that even a single individual or corporation may perform activities for different business purposes. (See §779.211.) Thus the reports of the House of Representatives cite, as an example of this, the case of a single company which owns several retail apparel stores and is also engaged in the lumbering business. It concludes that these activities are not part of a single enterprise. (H. Rept. 75, 87th Cong.,1st Sess., p. 7 and H. Rept. 1366, 89th Cong. 2d Sess., p. 9.)

§ 779.213   What is a common business purpose.
top

Generally, the term “common business purpose” will encompass activities whether performed by one person or by more than one person, or corporation, or other business organization, which are directed to the same business objective or to similar objectives in which the group has an interest. The scope of the term “enterprise” encompasses a single business entity as well as a unified business system which performs related activities for a common business purpose. What is a “common business purpose” in any particular case involves a practical judgment based on the facts in the light of the statutory provisions and the legislative intent. The answer ordinarily will be readily apparent from the facts. The facts may show that the activities are related to a single business objective or that they are so operated or controlled as to form a part of a unified business system which is directed to a single business objective. In such cases, it will follow that they are performed for a common business purpose. Where, however, the facts show that the activities are not performed as a part of such enterprise but for an entirely separate and unrelated business, they will be considered performed for a different business purpose and will not be a part of that enterprise. The application of these principles is considered in more detail in part 776 of this chapter.

§ 779.214   “Business” purpose.
top

The activities described in section 3(r) are included in an enterprise only when they are performed for a “business” purpose. Activities of eleemosynary, religious, or educational organization may be performed for a business purpose. Thus, where such organizations engage in ordinary commercial activities, such as operating a printing and publishing plant, the business activities will be treated under the Act the same as when they are performed by the ordinary business enterprise. (See Mitchell v. Pilgrims Holiness Church Corp., 210 F. 2d 879 (CA-7); cert. den. 347 U.S. 1013.) However, the nonprofit educational, religious, and eleemosynary activities will not be included in the enterprise unless they are of the types which the last sentence of section 3(r), as amended in 1966, declares shall be deemed to be performed for a business purpose. Such activities were not regarded as performed for a business purpose under the prior Act and are not so considered under the Act as it was amended in 1966 except for those activities listed in the last sentence of amended section 3(r). (See §779.21.)

Unified Operation or Common Control
top
§ 779.215   General scope of terms.
top

(a) Under the definition related activities performed for a common business purpose will be a part of the enterprise when they are performed either through “unified operation” or “common control.” It should be noted that these conditions are stated in the alternative. Thus if it is established that the described activities are performed through “common control,” it is unnecessary to show that they are also performed through “unified operation,” although frequently both conditions may exist.

(b) Under the definition the terms “unified operation” and “common control” refer to the performance of the “related activities.” They do not refer to the ownership of the activities. Although ownership may be a significant factor in determining control (see §779.222), the related activities will be a part of the enterprise even if they are not under common ownership, so long as they are performed for a common business purpose through unified operation or common control. Further, under the definition the terms “unified operation” and “common control” refer to the performance only of the particular related activities and not to other activities which may be performed by the various persons, corporations, or other business organizations, comprising the enterprise. Thus where two or more individual or business organizations perform certain of their activities through unified operation or common control, these activities will be part of a single enterprise, assuming of course they are related activities performed for a common business purpose. Finally, the definition in section 3(r) makes clear that the described activities may be performed through unified operation or common control “in one or more establishments or by one or more corporate or other organizational units.” The Senate Report on the 1966 amendments makes the following comment with respect to this:

Also, the operations through substantial ownership or control of a number of firms engaged in similar types of business activities constitute, in the committee's view, related activities performed through unified operation or common control within the meaning of the definition of enterprise. The fact the firms are independently incorporated or physically separate or under the immediate direction of local management, as in Wirtz v. Hardin, 16 Wage Hour Cases 722 (N.D. Ala.), is not determinative of this question. (Sen. Rept. No. 1487, 89th Congress, 2nd session, page 7.)

But where, as in the case of a retail store owned by a partnership and another store owned by one of the partners providing similar goods or services, it appears that the activities of the separate stores have no functional interdependence and that they are separately conducted to serve the business purpose of the partnership on the one hand and the business purpose of the individual on the other hand, the requirement of performance “through common control” of “related activities” for a “common business purpose” may not be sufficiently met.

§ 779.216   Statutory construction of the terms.
top

The terms “unified operation” and “common control” do not have a fixed legal or technical meaning. As used in the definition, these and other terms must be given an interpretation consistent with the Congressional intention to be ascertained from the context in which they are used, the legislation of which they form a part, and the legislative history. In extending coverage of the Act on an “enterprise” basis, the Congress intended, by the 1961 and 1966 amendments to cover, among others, business organizations and chain store systems which may perform their related activities through complex business arrangements or business structures, whether they perform their activities for a common business purpose through unified operation or through the retention or exercise of control. For these reasons, the definition of the term “enterprise” is stated in broad general terms. This legislative intent is evidenced both by the statements in the Committee Reports and by the definition itself, particularly the broad references to the inclusion in the “enterprise” of “all such activities” whether performed “in one or more establishments” or “by one or more corporate or other organizational units.” When the Act was amended in 1966 the Congress further broadened coverage by redefining an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce in section 3(s). (See §779.22.) Where the Congress intended to exclude certain arrangements or activities from the “enterprise” it did so by specific provision under the prior and amended Act.

§ 779.217   “Unified operation” defined.
top

Webster defines the word “unify” to mean “to cause to be one; to make into a unit; to unite.” The pertinent definition of “operation” is a method or way of operating, working or functioning. Since the term “unified operation” has reference to the method of performing the related activities, it means combining, uniting, or organizing their performance so that they are in effect a single business unit or an organized business system which is an economic unit directed to the accomplishment of a common business purpose. The term “unified operation” thus includes a business which may consist of separate segments but which is conducted or operated as a unit or as a single business for a common business purpose.

§ 779.218   Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”
top

There are many instances where several establishments, persons, corporations, or other business organizations, join together to perform some or all of their activities as a unified business or business system. They may accomplish such unification through agreements, franchises, grants, leases, or other arrangements which have the effect of aligning or integrating the activities of one company with the activities of others so that they constitute a single business or unified business system. Whether in any particular case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a single enterprise, will depend upon all the facts, including the manner in which the activities are performed, the agreements and arrangements which govern their performance, and the other relationships between the parties, considered in the light of the statutory provision and the legislative intent. (cf Wirtz v. Wornom's Pharmacy (E.D. Va.), 18 WH Cases 289, 365; 57 Labor Cases 32,006, 32,030.)

§ 779.219   Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership.
top

The performance of related activities through “unified operation” to serve a common business purpose may be achieved without common control and without common ownership. In particular cases ownership or control of the related activities may be factors to be considered, along with all facts and circumstances, in determining whether the activities are performed through “unified operation.” It is clear from the definition that if the described activities are performed through unified operation they will be part of the enterprise whether they are performed by one company or by more than one corporate or other organizational unit. The term “unified operation” has reference particularly to enterprises composed of a number of separate companies as is clear in the quotation from the Senate Report in §779.215. Where the related activities are performed by a single company, or under other single ownership, they will ordinarily be performed through “common control,” and the question of whether they are also performed through unified operation will not need to be decided. ( Wirtz v. Barnes Grocer Co., 398 F. 2d 718 (C.A. 8).)

§ 779.220   Unified operation may exist as to separately owned or controlled activities which are related.
top

Whether there is unified operation of related activities will thus be of concern primarily in those cases where the related activities are separately owned or controlled but where, through arrangement, agreement or otherwise, they are so performed as to constitute a unified business system organized for a common business purpose. For example, a group of separately incorporated, separately owned companies, may agree to conduct their activities in such manner as to be for all intents and purposes a single business system except for the fact that the ownership and control of the individual segments of the business are retained, in part or in whole, by the individual companies comprising the unified business system. The various units may operate under a single trade name; construct their establishment to appear identical; use identical equipment; sell generally the same goods or provide the same type of services, and, in some cases, at uniform standardized prices; and in other respects appear to the persons utilizing their services or purchasing their goods as being the same business. They also may arrange for group purchasing and warehousing; for advertising as a single business; and for standardization of their records, as well as their credit, employment, and other business policies and practices. In such circumstances the activities may well be performed through “unified operation” sufficient to consider all of the related activities performed by the group of units as constituting one enterprise, despite the separate ownership of the various segments and despite the fact that the individual units or segments may retain control as to some or all of their own activities. That this is in accord with the congressional intent is plain, since where the Congress intended that such arrangements shall not bring a group of certain individual retail or service establishments into a single enterprise, provision to accomplish such exception was specifically included. (See §779.226, discussing the proviso in section 3(r) with respect to certain franchise and other specified arrangements entered into between independently owned retail or service establishments and other businesses.)

§ 779.221   “Common control” defined.
top

Under the definition the “enterprise” includes all related activities performed through “common control” for a common business purpose. The word “control” may be defined as the act of fact of controlling; power or authority to control; directing or restraining domination. “Control” thus includes the power or authority to control. In relation to the performance of the described activities, the “control,” referred to in the definition in section 3(r) includes the power to direct, restrict, regulate, govern, or administer the performance of the activities. “Common” control includes the sharing of control and it is not limited to sole control or complete control by one person or corporation. “Common” control therefore exists where the performance of the described activities are controlled by one person or by a number of persons, corporations, or other organizational units acting together. This is clearly supported by the definition which specifically includes in the “enterprise” all such activities whether performed by “one or more corporate or other organizational units.” The meaning of “common control” is discussed comprehensively in part 776 of this chapter.

§ 779.222   Ownership as factor.
top

As pointed out in §779.215 “unified operation” and “common control” do not refer to the ownership of the described activities but only to their performance. It is clear, however, that ownership may be an important factor in determining whether the activities are performed through “unified operation or common control.” Thus common control may exist where there is common ownership. Where the right to control, one of the prerogatives of ownership, exists, there may be sufficient “control” to meet the requirements of the statute. Ownership, or sufficient ownership to exercise control, will be regarded as sufficient to meet the requirement of “common control.” Where there is such ownership, it is immaterial that some segments of the related activities may operate on a semiautonomous basis, superficially free of actual control, so long as the power to exercise control exists through such ownership. (See Wirtz v. Barnes Grocer Co., 398 F. 2d 718 (C.A. 8).) For example, a parent corporation may operate a chain of retail or service establishments which, for business reasons, may be divided into several geographic units. These units may have certain autonomy as to purchasing, marketing, labor relations, and other matters. They may be separately incorporated, and each unit may maintain its own records, including records of its profits or losses. All the units together, in such a case, will constitute a single enterprise with the parent corporation. They would constitute a single business organization under the “common control” of the parent corporation so long as they are related activities performed for a common business purpose. The common ownership in such cases provides the power to exercise the “control” referred to in the definition. It is clear from the Act and the legislative history that the Congress did not intend that such a chain organization should escape the effects of the law with respect to any segment of its business merely by separately incorporating or otherwise dividing the related activities performed for a common business purpose.

§ 779.223   Control where ownership vested in individual or single organization.
top

Ownership, sufficient to exercise “control,” of course, exists where total ownership is vested in a single person, family unit, partnership, corporation, or other single business organization. Ownership sufficient to exercise “control” exist also where there is more than 50 percent ownership of voting stock. (See West v. Wal-Mart, 264 F. Supp. 168 (W.D. Ark.).) But “control” may exist with much more limited ownership, and, in certain cases exists in the absence of any ownership. The mere ownership of stock in a corporation does not by itself establish the existence of the “control” referred to in the definition. The question whether the ownership in a particular case includes the right to exercise the requisite “control” will necessarily depend upon all the facts in the light of the statutory provisions.

§ 779.224   Common control in other cases.
top

(a) As stated in §779.215 “common control” may exist with or without ownership. The actual control of the performance of the related activities is sufficient to establish the “control” referred to in the definition. In some cases an owner may actually relinquish his control to another, or by agreement or other arrangement, he may so restrict his right to exercise control as to abandon the control or to share the control of his business activities with other persons or corporations. In such a case, the activities may be performed under “common control.” In other cases, the power to control may be reserved through agreement or arrangement between the parties so as to vest the control of the activities of one business in the hands of another.

(b) Activities are considered to be performed under “common control” even if, because of the particular methods of operation, the power to control is only seldom used, as where the business has been in operation for a long time without change in methods of operation and practically no actual direction is necessary; also common control may exist where the control, although rarely visibly exercised, is evidenced by the fact that mere suggestions are adopted readily by the business being controlled.

(c) In the retail industry, particularly, there are many instances where, for business reasons, related activities performed by separate companies are so unified or controlled as to constitute a single enterprise. A common example, specifically named in the definition, is the leased department. This and other examples are discussed in §§779.225 through 779.235.

Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements
top
§ 779.225   Leased departments.
top

(a) As stated in section 3(r) of the enterprise includes “departments of an establishment operated through leasing arrangements.” This statutory provision is based on the fact that ordinarily the activities of such leased departments are related to the activities of the establishment in which they are located, and they are performed for a common business purpose either through “unified operation” or “common control.” A general discussion will be found in part 776 of this chapter.

(b) In the ordinary case, a retail or service establishment may control many of the operations of a leased department therein and unify its operation with its own. Thus, they may operate under a common trade name: The host establishment may determine, or have the power to determine, the leased department's space location, the type of merchandise it will sell, its pricing policy, its hours of operation and some or all of its hiring, firing and other personnel policies; advertising, adjustment and credit operations, may be unified, and insurance, taxes, and other matters may be included as a part of the total operations of the establishment. Some or all of these and other functions, which are the normal prerogatives of an independent businessman, may be controlled or unified with the store's other activities in such a way as to constitute a single enterprise under the Act.

(c) Since the definition specifically includes in the “enterprise,” for the purpose of this Act, “departments of an establishment operated through leasing arrangements,” any such department will be considered a part of the host establishment's enterprise in the absence of special facts and circumstances warranting a different conclusion.

(d) Whether, in a particular case, the relationship is such as to constitute the lessee's operation to be a separate establishment of a different enterprise rather than a “leased department” of the host establishment as described in the definition, will depend upon all the facts including the agreements and arrangements between the parties as well as the manner in which the operations are conducted. If, for example, the facts show that the lessee occupies a physically separate space with (or even without) a separate entrance, and operates under a separate name, with his own separate employees and records, and in other respects conducts his business independently of the lessor's, the lessee may be operating a separate establishment or place of business of his own and the relationship of the parties may be only that of landlord and tenant. In such a case, the lessee's operation will not be regarded as a “leased department” and will not be included in the same enterprise with the lessor.

(e) The employees of a leased department would not be covered on an enterprise basis if such leased department is located in an establishment which is not itself a covered enterprise or part of a covered enterprise. Likewise, the applicability of exemptions for certain retail or service establishments from the Act's minimum wage or overtime pay provisions, or both, to employees of a leased department would depend upon the character of the establishment in which the leased department is located. Other sections of this subpart discuss the coverage of leased retail and service departments in more detail while subpart D of this part explains how exemptions for certain retail and service establishments apply to leased department employees.

§ 779.226   Exception for an independently owned retail or service establishment under certain franchise and other arrangements.
top

While certain franchise and other arrangements may operate to bring the one to whom the franchise is granted into another enterprise (see §779.232), section 3(r) contains a specific exception for certain arrangements entered into by a retail or service establishment which is under independent ownership. The specific exception in section 3(r) reads as follows:

Provided, That, within the meaning of this subsection, a retail or service establishment which is under independent ownership shall not be deemed to be so operated or controlled as to be other than a separate and distinct enterprise by reason of any arrangement, which includes, but is not necessarily limited to, an agreement, (1) that it will sell, or sell only, certain goods specified by a particular manufacturer, distributor, or advertiser, (2) that it will join with other such establishments in the same industry for the purpose of collective purchasing, or (3) that it will have the exclusive right to sell the goods or use the brand name of a manufacturer, distributor, or advertiser within a specified area, or by reason of the fact that it occupies premises leased to it by a person who also leases premises to other retail or service establishments.

§ 779.227   Conditions which must be met for exception.
top

This exception, in accordance with its specific terms, will apply to exclude an establishment from enterprise coverage only if the following conditions are met:

(a) The establishment must be a “retail or service establishment” as this term is defined in section 13(a)(2) of the Act (see discussion of this term in §§779.312 and 779.313); and

(b) The retail or service establishment must not be an “enterprise” which is large enough to come within the scope of section 3(s) of the Act; and

(c) The retail or service establishment must be under independent ownership.

§ 779.228   Types of arrangements contemplated by exception.
top

If the retail or service establishment meets the requirements in paragraphs (a) through (c) of §779.227, it may enter into the following arrangements without becoming a part of the larger enterprise, that is, without losing its status as a “separate and distinct enterprise” to which section 3(s) would not otherwise apply:

(a) Any arrangement, whether by agreement, franchise or otherwise, that it will sell, or sell only certain goods specified by a particular manufacturer, distributor, or advertiser.

(b) Any such arrangement that it will have the exclusive right to sell the goods or use the brand name of a manufacturer, distributor, or advertiser within a specified area.

(c) Any such arrangement by which it will join with other similar retail or service establishments in the same industry for the purpose of collective purchasing. Where an agreement for “collective purchasing” is involved, further requirements are imposed, namely, that all of the other establishments joining in the agreement must be retail or service establishments under independent ownership, and that all of the establishments joining in the collective purchasing arrangement must be “in the same industry.” This has reference to such arrangements by a group of grocery stores, or by some other trade group in the retail industry.

(d) Any arrangement whereby the establishment's premises are leased from a person who also leases premises to other retail or service establishments. In connection with this rental arrangement, the Senate Report cites as an example the retail establishment which rents its premises from a shopping center operator (S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 41). It is clear that this exception was not intended to apply to the usual leased department in an establishment, which is specifically included within the larger enterprise under the definition of section 3(r). (See discussion under §779.225.)

§ 779.229   Other arrangements.
top

With respect to those arrangements specifically described in the proviso contained in the definition, an independently owned retail or service establishment will not be considered to be other than a separate and distinct enterprise, if other arrangements the establishment makes do not have the effect of bringing the establishment within a larger enterprise. Whether or not other arrangements have such an effect will necessarily depend upon all the facts. The Senate Report makes the following observations with respect to this:

Thus the mere fact that a group of independently owned and operated stores join together to combine their purchasing activities or to run combined advertising will not for these reasons mean that their activities are performed through unified operation or common control and they will not for these reasons be considered a part of the same “enterprise.” This is also the case in food retailing because of the great extent to which local independent food store operators have joined together in many phases of their business. While maintaining their stores as independently owned units, they have affiliated together not just for the purchasing of merchandise, but also for providing numerous other services such as (1) central warehousing; (2) advertising; (3) sales promotions; (4) managerial advice; (5) store engineering; (6) accounting systems; (7) site locations; and (8) hospitalization and life insurance protection. (S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 42.)

The report continues with the following observations:

Whether such arrangements bring the establishment within the franchisor's, lessor's, or grantor's “enterprise” is a question to be determined on all the facts. The facts may show that the arrangements reserve the necessary right of control in the grantor or unify the operations among the separate “franchised” establishments so as to create an economic unity of related activities for a common business purpose. In that case, the “franchised” establishment will be considered a part of the same “enterprise.” For example, whether a franchise, lease, or other contractual arrangement between a distributor and a retail dealer has the effect of bringing the dealer's establishments within the enterprise of the distributor will depend upon the terms of the agreements and the related facts concerning the relationship between the parties.

There may be a number of different types of arrangements established in such cases. The key in each case may be found in the answer to the question, “Who receives the profits, suffers the losses, sets the wages and working conditions of employees, or otherwise manages the business in those respects which are the common attributes of an independent businessman operating a business for profit?”

For instance, a bona fide independent automobile dealer will not be considered a part of the enterprise of the automobile manufacturer or of the distributor. Likewise, the same result will also obtain with respect to the independent components of a shopping center.

In all of these cases if it is found on the basis of all the facts and circumstances that the arrangements are so restrictive as to products, prices, profits, or management as to deny the “franchised” establishment the essential prerogatives of the ordinary independent businessman, the establishment, the dealer, or concessionaire will be considered an integral part of the related activities of the enterprise which grants the franchise, right, or concession. (S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 42.)

Thus, there may be a number of different types of arrangements established in such cases, and the determination as to whether the arrangements create a larger “enterprise” will necessarily depend on all the facts. Some arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise and some which do are discussed in §§779.230 through 779.235.

§ 779.230   Franchise and other arrangements.
top

(a) There are many different and complex arrangements by which businesses may join to perform their activities for a common purpose. A general discussion will be found in part 776 of this chapter. The quotation in §779.229 from the Senate Report shows that Congress recognized that some franchise, lease, or other arrangements have the effect of creating a larger enterprise and whether they do or not depends on the facts. The facts may show that the arrangements are so restrictive as to deprive the individual establishment of those prerogatives which are the essential attributes of an independent business. (Compare Wirtz v. Lunsford, 404 F. 2d, 693 (C.A. 6).) An establishment through such arrangements may transfer sufficient “control” so that it becomes in effect a unit in a unified chain operation. In such cases the result of the arrangement will be to create a larger enterprise composed of the various segments, including the establishment which relinquishes its control.

(b) The term “franchise” is not susceptible of precise definition. The extent to which a businessman relinquishes the control of his business or the extent to which a franchise results in the performance of the activities through unified operation or common control depends upon the terms of the contract and the other relationships between the parties. Ultimately the determination of the precise scope of such arrangements which result in creating larger enterprises rests with the courts.

§ 779.231   Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.
top

(a) While it is clear that in every franchise a businessman surrenders some rights, it equally is clear that every franchise does not create a larger enterprise. In the ordinary case a franchise may involve no more than an agreement to sell the particular product of the one granting the franchise. It may also prohibit the sale of a competing product. Such arrangements, standing alone, do not deprive the individual businessman of his “control” so as to bring him into a larger enterprise with the one granting the franchise.

(b) The portion of the Senate Report quoted in the §779.229 cites a “bona fide independent automobile dealer” as an example of such a franchise arrangement. (It is recognized that salesmen, mechanics, and partsmen primarily engaged in selling or servicing automobiles, trucks, trailers, farm implements, or aircraft, employed by nonmanufacturing establishments primarily engaged in the business of selling such vehicles to ultimate purchasers are specifically exempt from the overtime pay provisions under section 13(b)(10) of the Act. Section 779.372 discusses the exemption provided by section 13(b)(10) and its application whether or not the establishment meets the Act's definition of a retail or service establishment. The automobile dealer is used here only as an example of the type of franchise arrangement which, within the intent of the Congress, does not result in creating a larger enterprise.) The methods of operation of the independent automobile dealer are widely known. While he operates under a franchise to sell a particular make of automobile and also may be required to stock certain parts and to maintain specified service facilities, it is clear that he retains the control of the management of his business in those respects which characterize an independent businessman. He determines the prices for which he sells his merchandise. Even if prices are suggested by the manufacturer, it is well known that the dealer exercises wide discretion in this respect, free of control by the manufacturer or distributor. Also the automobile dealer retains control with respect to the management of his business, the determination of his employment practices, the operation of his various departments, and his business policies. The type of business in which he is engaged leaves him wide latitude for the exercise of his judgment and for decisions with respect to important aspects of his business upon which its success or failure depends. On the basis of these considerations, it is evident why the independent automobile dealer was cited as an example of the type of franchise which does not create a larger enterprise encompassing the dealer, the manufacturer or the distributor. Similar facts will lead to the same conclusion in other such arrangements.

§ 779.232   Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.
top

(a) In other instances, franchise arrangements do result in bringing a dealer's business into a larger enterprise with the one granting the franchise. Where the franchise arrangement results in vesting control over the operations of the dealer's business in the one granting the franchise, the result is to place the dealer in a larger enterprise with the one granting the franchise. Where there are multiple units to which such franchises have been granted, the several dealers are considered to be subject to the common control of the one granting the franchise and all would be included in the same larger enterprise.

(b) It is not possible to lay down specific rules to determine whether a franchise or other agreement is such that a single enterprise results because all the facts and circumstances must be examined in the light of the definition of the term “enterprise” as discussed above in this subpart. However, the following example illustrates a franchising company and independently owned retail establishments which would constitute a single enterprise:

(1) The franchisor had developed a system of retail food store operations, built up a large volume of buying power, formulated rules and regulations for the successful operation of stores together constituting a system which for many years proved in practice to be of commercial value to the separate stores; and

(2) The franchisor desired to extend its business through the operation of associated franchise stores, by responsible persons in various localities to act as limited agents, and to be parts of the system, to the end that the advantages of and the profits from the business could be enjoyed by those so associated as well as by the franchisor; and

(3) The stores were operated under the franchise as part of the general system and connected with the home office of the franchisor from which general administrative jurisdiction was exercised over all franchised stores, wherever located; and

(4) The stores operated under the franchise agreement were always subject to the general administrative jurisdiction of the franchisor and agreed to comply with it; and

(5) The stores operated under the franchise agreed to install appliances, fixtures, signs, etc. according to plans and specifications provided by the franchisor and to purchase their merchandise through the franchisor except to the extent that the latter may authorize local purchase of certain items; and

(6) The stores operated under the franchise agreed to participate in special promotions, sales and advertising as directed by the franchisor, to attend meetings of franchise store operators and to pay a fee to the franchisor at the rate of one-half of 1 percent of total gross sales each month for the privileges to them and the advantages and profits derived from operating a local unit of the franchisor's system; and

(7) The franchisor under the franchise agreement had the right to place on a prohibited list any merchandise which it considered undesirable for sale in a franchise store, and the stores operated pursuant to the franchise agreed to immediately discontinue sale of any such blacklisted merchandise.

(c) It is clear from the facts and circumstances surrounding this franchise arrangement described in paragraph (b) of this section that the operators of the franchised establishments are denied the essential prerogatives of the ordinary independent businessman because of restrictions as to products, prices, profits and management. The last paragraph of the Senate Report quoted in §779.229 makes clear that in such cases the franchised establishment, dealer, or concessionaire will be considered an integral part of the related activities of the enterprise which grants the franchise, right, or concession.

§ 779.233   Independent contractors performing work “for” an enterprise.
top

(a) The definition in section 3(r) specifically provides that the “enterprise” shall not include “the related activities performed for such enterprise by an independent contractor.” This exclusion will apply where the related activities are performed “for” the enterprise and if such activities are performed by “an independent contractor.” This provision is discussed generally in part 776 of this chapter.

(b) The Senate Report in referring to this exception states as follows:

It does not include the related activities performed for such an enterprise by an independent contractor, such as an independent accounting firm or sign service or advertising company,  *  *  * (S. Rept. No. 145, 87th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 40).

The term “independent contractor” as used in section 3(r) has reference to an independent business which performs services for other businesses as an established part of its own business activities. The term “independent contractor” as used in 3(r) thus has reference to an independent business which is a separate “enterprise,” and which deals in the ordinary course of its own business operations, at arms length, with the enterprises for which it performs services.

(c) There are many instances in industry where one business performs activities for separate businesses without becoming a part of a larger enterprise. In addition to the examples cited in the Report they may include such services as repairs, window cleaning, transportation, warehousing, collection services, and many others. The essential test in each case will be whether such services are performed “for” the enterprise by an independent, separate enterprise, or whether the related activities are performed for a common purpose through unified operation or common control. In the latter case the activities will be considered performed “by” the enterprise, rather than “for” the enterprise, and will be a part of the enterprise. The distinction in the ordinary case will be readily apparent from the facts. In those cases where questions arise a determination must be made on the basis of all the facts in the light of the statute and the legislative history.

§ 779.234   Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.
top

Section 3(s) provides that any “establishment which has as its only regular employees the owner thereof or the parent, spouse, child, or other member of the immediate family of such owner” shall not be considered to be an “enterprise” as described in section 3(r) or a part of any other enterprise. Further the sales of such establishment are not included for the purpose of determining the annual gross volume of sales of any enterprise for the purpose of section 3(s). The term “other member of the immediate family of such owner” is considered to include relationships such as brother, sister, grandchildren, grandparents, and in-laws but not distant relatives from separate households. The 1966 amendments extended the exception to include family operated establishments which only employ persons other than members of the immediate family infrequently, irregularly, and sporadically. (See general discussion in part 776 of this chapter.)

§ 779.235   Other “enterprises.”
top

No attempt has been made in the discussion of the term “enterprise,” to consider every possible situation which may, within the meaning of section 3(r), constitute an “enterprise” under the Act. The discussion is designed to explain and illustrate the application of the term in some cases; in others, the discussion may serve as a guide in applying the criteria of the definition to the particular fact situation. A more complete discussion is contained in part 776 of this chapter.

Covered Enterprises
top
§ 779.236   In general.
top

Sections 779.201 through 779.235 discuss the various criteria for determining what business unit or units constitute an “enterprise” within the meaning of the Act. Sections 779.237 through 779.245 discuss the criteria for determining what constitutes a “covered enterprise” under the Act with respect to the conditions for coverage of those enterprises in which retail sale of goods or services are made. As explained in §§779.2 through 779.4, previously covered employment in retail and service enterprises will be subject to different monetary standards than newly covered employment in such enterprises until February 1, 1971. For this reason the enterprise coverage provisions of both the prior and the amended Act are discussed in the following sections of this subpart.

§ 779.237   Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.
top

Under section 3(s) the “enterprise” to be covered must be an “enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.” This is defined in section 3(s) as follows:

Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce means an enterprise which has employees engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, including employees handling, selling or otherwise working on goods that have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person  *  *  *.

In order for an enterprise to come within the coverage of the Act, it must, therefore, be established that the enterprise has some employees who are:

(a) Engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, including

(b) Employees handling, selling or otherwise working on goods that have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person.

The legislative history of the 1966 amendments does not indicate a difference between the meaning of the above wording and the wording used in the prior Act. (See §779.22.) For a complete discussion of the employees who come within the quoted language see subpart B of the Interpretative Bulletin on general coverage, part 776 of this chapter.

§ 779.238   Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis.
top

As set forth in the preceding section an enterprise to be a “covered enterprise” must have at least some employees engaged in certain described activities. This requirement will be determined on an annual basis in order to give full effect to the intent of Congress. Thus, it is not necessary that the enterprise have two or more employees engaged in the named activities every week. An enterprise described in section 3(s)(1) or (5) of the prior Act or in section 3(s)(1) of the Act as it was amended in 1966 will be considered to have employees engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, including the handling, selling or otherwise working on goods that have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person, if during the annual period which it uses in calculating its annual sales for purposes of the other conditions of these sections, it regularly and recurrently has at least two or more employees engaged in such activities. On the other hand, it is plain that an enterprise that has employees engaged in such activities only in isolated or sporadic occasions, will not meet this condition.

§ 779.239   Meaning of “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.”
top

The term “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce,” as used in section 3(s) of the Act in reference to employees who are so engaged is the same as the term which has been used in the Act for many years. The statutory definitions of these terms are set forth in §§779.12 through 779.16. The interpretative bulletin on general coverage part 776 of this chapter) contains the Division's interpretations as to which employees are “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.” These interpretations are equally applicable under section 3(s) in determining which employees are “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce” within the meaning of this section. A brief discussion of the guiding principles of retail or service establishments are “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce” is set forth in subpart B of this part.

Employees Handling, Selling, or Otherwise Working on Goods That Have Been Moved in or Produced for Commerce by Any Person
top
§ 779.240   Employees “handling  *  *  * or otherwise working on goods.”
top

(a) “Goods” upon which the described activities are performed. Employees will be considered to be handling, selling, or otherwise working on goods within the meaning of section 3(s) if they engage in the described activities on “goods” which “have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person.” They may be handling or working on such goods which the enterprise does not sell. The term “goods” is defined in section 3(i) of the Act. The definition is explained in §779.107 and discussed comprehensively in part 776 of this chapter. As defined in section 3(i) of the Act, the term includes any part or ingredient of “goods” and, in general, includes “articles or subjects of commerce of any character.” Thus the term “goods,” as used in section 3(s), includes all goods which have been moved in or produced for commerce, such as stock-in-trade, or raw materials that have been moved in or produced for commerce.

(b) “Handling  *  *  * or otherwise working on goods.” The term “handling  *  *  * or otherwise working on goods” used in section 3(s) is substantially the same as the term used since 1938 in section 3(j) of the Act. Both terms will therefore be considered to have essentially the same meaning. (See part 776 of this chapter, the interpretative bulletin on the general coverage of the Act.) Thus, the activities encompassed in the term “handling or in any other manner working on goods” in section 3(s) are the same as the activities, encompassed in the similar term in section 3(j), by which goods are “produced” within the meaning of the Act. In general, the term “handling  *  *  * or otherwise working on goods” includes employees who sort, screen, grade, store, pack, label, address, transport, deliver, print, type, or otherwise handle or work on the goods. The same will be true of employees who handle or work on “any part of ingredient of the goods” referred to in the discussion of the term “goods” in §779.107. An employee will be considered engaged in “handling  *  *  * or otherwise working on goods,” within the meaning of section 3(s), only if he performs the described activities on goods that “have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person.” This requirement is discussed in §§779.242 and 779.243.

§ 779.241   Selling.
top

The statutory definition of the term “sale” or “sell” is quoted in §779.15. As long as the employee in any way participates in the sale of the goods he will be considered to be “selling” the goods, whether he physically handles them or not. Thus, if the employee performs any work that, in a practical sense is an essential part of consummating the “sale” of the particular goods, he will be considered to be “selling” the goods. “Selling” goods, under section 3(s) has reference only to goods which “have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person,” as discussed in §§779.242 and 779.243.

§ 779.242   Goods that “have been moved in” commerce.
top

For the purpose of section 3(s), goods will be considered to “have been moved  *  *  * in commerce” when they have moved across State lines before they are handled, sold, or otherwise worked on by the employees. It is immaterial in such a case that the goods may have “come to rest” within the meaning of the term “in commerce” as interpreted in other respects, before they are handled, sold, or otherwise worked on by the employees in the enterprise. Such movement in commerce may take place before they have reached the enterprise, or within the enterprise, such as from a warehouse of the enterprise in one State to a retail store of the same enterprise located in another State. Thus, employees will be considered to be “handling, selling, or otherwise working on goods that have been moved in  *  *  * commerce” where they are engaged in the described activities on “goods” that have moved across State lines at any time in the course of business, such as from the manufacturer to the distributor, or to the “enterprise,” or from one establishment to another within the “enterprise.” See the general discussion in part 776 of this chapter.

§ 779.243   Goods that have been “produced for commerce by any person.”
top

An employee will be considered to be handling, selling, or otherwise working on goods that have been “produced for commerce by any person” within the meaning of section 3(s), if he is performing the described activities with respect to goods which have been “produced for commerce” within the meaning of the Act. The term “produced” is defined in section 3(j) of the Act and, as explained above, has a well-established meaning under the existing law. (See §779.104 and part 776 of this chapter.) The word as it is used in the context of the phrase “goods  *  *  * produced for commerce by any person” in section 3(s) has the same meaning as in 3(j). Therefore, where goods are considered “produced for commerce” within the meaning of section 3(j) of the Act they also will be considered “produced for commerce” within the meaning of section 3(s). A discussion of when goods are produced for commerce within the meaning of section 3(j) is contained in §779.108. Of course, within the meaning of section 3(s), the goods will be considered “produced for commerce” when they are so produced “by any person.”

Covered Retail Enterprise
top
§ 779.244   “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services.
top

Retailers of goods or services are primarily concerned with the enterprises described in sections 3(s)(1) and 3(s)(5) of the prior Act and section 3(s)(1) of the Act as amended in 1966. Although section 3(s)(1) of the prior Act (under the 1961 amendments) had exclusive application to the retail and service industry, section 3(s)(1) of the Act as amended in 1966 may apply to any enterprise. This part is concerned only with retail or service establishments and enterprises. Enterprises described in clauses (2), (3), and (4) of section 3(s) are discussed herein only with respect to the application to them of provisions relating to retail or service establishments. Coverage of such enterprises and the application of section 3(s)(1) of the amended Act to enterprises generally are discussed in part 776 of this chapter. The statutory definitions of enterprises of interest to retailers under the prior Act and the Act as amended in 1966 are quoted in §779.22.

§ 779.245   Conditions for coverage of retail or service enterprises.
top

(a) Retail or service enterprises may be covered under section 3(s)(1) of the prior Act or section 3(s)(1) of the amended Act although the latter is not limited to retail or service enterprises. A retail or service enterprise will be a covered enterprise under section 3(s)(1) of the amended Act if both the following conditions are met:

(1) The enterprise is “an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.” This requirement, which is discussed in §§779.237 through 779.243, applies to all covered enterprises under the provisions of both the prior and the amended Act; and,

(2) During the period February 1, 1967, through January 31, 1969, the enterprise has an annual gross volume of sales made or business done, exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated, of at least $500,000; or on and after February 1, 1969, the enterprise has an annual gross volume of sales made or business done of at least $250,000, exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated.

(b) A retail or service enterprise will be covered under section 3(s)(1) of the Act prior to the amendments if all four of the following conditions are met:

(1) The enterprise is “an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce” as explained above in paragraph (a)(1) of this section and,

(2) The enterprise has one or more “retail or service establishments” (the statutory definition of the term “retail or service establishment” is contained in §779.24 and discussed in subpart D of this part) and,

(3) The enterprise has an annual gross volume of sales of $1 million or more, exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated and,

(4) The enterprise “purchases or receives goods for resale that move or have moved across State lines (not in deliveries from the reselling establishment) which amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more.” (This requirement is discussed in §§779.246 through 779.253.)

(c) Sections 779.258 through 779.260 discuss the meaning of “annual gross volume of sales made or business done” and §§779.261 through 779.264 discuss what excise taxes may be excluded from the annual gross volume. Sections 779.265 through 779.269 discuss the method of computing the annual gross volume where it is necessary to determine monetary obligations to employees under the Act.

Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act
top
§ 779.246   Inflow test under section 3(s)(1) of the Act prior to 1966 amendments.
top

To come within the scope of section 3(s)(1) of the prior Act, the enterprise, in addition to the other conditions, must purchase or receive goods for resale that move or have moved across State lines (not in deliveries from the reselling establishment) which amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more. To meet this condition, it must be shown that (a) the enterprise purchases or receives goods for resale (§779.248), (b) that such goods move or have moved across State lines (§779.249), and (c) that such purchases and receipts amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more (§779.253). Enterprises which do not meet this test may be covered under section 3(s)(1) of the present Act, which contains no interstate inflow requirement.

§ 779.247   “Goods” defined.
top

The term “goods” as used in section 3(s) of the prior and amended Act is defined in section 3(i) of the Act. The statutory definition is quoted in §779.14, and is discussed in detail in part 776 of this chapter.

§ 779.248   Purchase or receive “goods for resale.”
top

(a) Goods will be considered purchased or received “for resale” for purposes of the inflow test contained in section 3(s)(1) of the prior Act if they are purchased or received with the intention of being resold. This includes goods, such as stock in trade which is purchased or received by the enterprise for resale in the ordinary course of business. It does not include machinery, equipment, supplies, and other goods which the enterprise purchases to use in conducting its business. This is true even if such capital goods or other equipment, which the enterprise originally purchased for use in conducting its business, are at some later date actually resold. The distinction is to be found in whether the goods are purchased or received by the enterprise with the intention of reselling them in the same form or after further processing or manufacturing, or whether they are purchased with the intent of being consumed or used by the enterprise itself in the performance of its activities.

(b) Goods, such as raw materials or ingredients, are considered purchased or received by the enterprise “for resale,” even if such goods are purchased or received for the purpose of being processed or used as parts or ingredients in the manufacture of other goods which the enterprise intends to sell. For example, where the enterprise purchases flour for use in baking bread or pastries for sale, the goods will be considered to have been purchased “for resale.” It is immaterial whether the goods will be resold by the enterprise at retail or at wholesale.

§ 779.249   Goods which move or have moved across State lines.
top

In order to be included in the annual dollar volume for purposes of this test, the goods which the enterprise purchases or receives for resale must be goods that “move or have moved across the State lines.” Goods which have not moved across State lines before they are resold by the enterprise will not be included. The movement to which the phrase “move or have moved” has reference is that movement which the goods follow in their journey to the enterprise or within the enterprise to the establishment which sells the goods. Thus, if goods have moved across State lines at some stage in the flow of trade before they are actually sold by the enterprise, they will be considered to have moved across State lines. It is not material that the goods may have “come to rest” at some time before they are purchased or received and sold by the enterprise; nor is it material that some time may have elapsed between the time the goods have moved across State lines and the time they are purchased or received and sold by the enterprise. It is sufficient if at any time such goods have moved across State lines in the ordinary course of trade before resale by the enterprise. Much of the goods purchased by retailers are produced from a local intrastate supplier. In many instances these goods may have been stored at the supplier's establishment for some time. However, as long as the particular goods purchased have moved across State lines at some stage in the flow of trade to the retailer, they would have to be included in determining whether or not the enterprise has purchased or received for resale such out-of-State goods amounting to $250,000.

§ 779.250   Goods that have not lost their out-of-State identity.
top

Goods which are purchased or received by the enterprise from within the State will be considered goods which “have moved across State lines” if they have previously been moved across State lines and have not lost their identity as out-of-State goods before they are purchased or received by the enterprise. Also goods which have been assembled within the State after they were moved across State lines but before they are purchased or received by the enterprise will still be regarded as goods which “have moved across State lines.” Such goods are still identifiable as goods brought into the State. This is also true in certain cases where goods are processed to some extent without losing their identity as out-of-State goods. For example, out-of-State furniture or television sets which are put together within the State, or milk from outside the State which is pasteurized and bottled within the State, before being purchased or received by the enterprise, are goods which “have moved across State lines.” They have already moved across State lines and they retain their out-of-State identity, despite the assembly or processing within the State.

§ 779.251   Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity.
top

(a) Goods which are purchased or received by the enterprise within the State will not be considered goods which have “moved across State lines” if the goods, although they came from outside the State, had been processed or manufactured so as to have lost their identity as out-of-State goods before they are purchased or received by the enterprise. This assumes, of course, that the goods so manufactured or processed do not move across State lines before they are sold by the enterprise. Thus where an enterprise buys bread baked within the State which does not move across State lines before it is resold by the enterprise, the bread is not “goods, which have moved across State lines” even if the flour and other ingredients came from outside the State. The same conclusion will follow, under the same circumstances, where clothing is manufactured from out-of-State fabrics.

(b) In those cases where goods are composed in part of goods which have, and in part of goods which have not, moved across State lines, the entire product will be considered as goods which have moved across State lines, if, as a practical matter, it substantially consists of goods which are identifiable as out-of-State goods. Whether goods have been so changed as to have lost their out-of-State identity is question which will depend upon all the facts in a particular case.

§ 779.252   Not in deliveries from the reselling establishment.
top

Goods which move across State lines only in the course of deliveries from the reselling establishment of the enterprise are not included as goods which “move or have moved across State lines.” Thus, goods delivered by the enterprise to its customers outside of the State are not, for that reason, considered goods which “move or have moved across State lines.” The purpose of the provision excepting “deliveries from the reselling establishment” is to limit the test to goods which flow into the enterprise and to exclude those goods which only cross State lines when they flow out of the enterprise as an incident of the sale of such goods by the enterprise. In other words, this is an inflow test and not an outflow test.

§ 779.253   What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.
top

The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale that move or have moved across State lines must “amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more.” It will be noted that taxes are not excluded in measuring this annual dollar volume. Thus, the total cost to the enterprise of such goods will be included in calculating the $250,000. This will include all taxes and other charges which the enterprise must pay for such goods. Generally, all charges will be included in the invoice of the goods. But whether included in the invoice or not, the total amount which the enterprise is required to pay for such goods, including charges for transportation, insurance, delivery, storage and any other will be included in computing the $250,000. The dollar volume of the goods purchased or received by the enterprise is the “annual” volume. The method of calculating the annual dollar volume is explained in §779.266.

The Gasoline Service Establishment Enterprise
top
§ 779.254   Summary of coverage and exemptions prior to and following the 1966 amendments.
top

The ordinary gasoline service establishment is a covered enterprise under the Act if it has an annual gross volume of sales made or business done of not less than $250,000 a year, exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated, and meets the other tests of section 3(s)(5) of the prior Act and section 3(s)(1) of the amended Act. Beginning February 1, 1969, enterprise coverage extends to any gasoline service establishment in an enterprise which has an annual gross volume in such amount, even if the establishment's annual gross volume is less. However, a gasoline service establishment with gross sales of less than $250,000, exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated, may qualify for the minimum wage and overtime pay exemption provided in section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets the requirements of that section. Section 779.313 summarizes the requirements. An overtime pay exemption, which was repealed by the 1966 amendments, existed until February 1, 1967, for employees of ordinary gasoline service establishments under the prior Act. Thus, nonexempt employees of a covered gasoline service establishment enterprise are subject to the minimum wage standards for previously covered employment and the overtime pay requirements for newly covered employment as listed below:

Minimum wage:Beginning
$1.40 an hourFebruary 1, 1967.
$1.60 an hourFebruary 1, 1968 and thereafter.
Overtime pay after:
44 hours in a workweekFebruary 1, 1967.
42 hours in a workweekFebruary 1, 1968.
40 hours in a workweekFebruary 1, 1969 and thereafter.

The particular considerations affecting coverage and exemptions are discussed in subsequent sections. The statutory language contained in section 3(s)(5) of the prior Act and 3(s)(1) of the amended Act may be found in §779.22.

§ 779.255   Meaning of “gasoline service establishment.”
top

(a) A gasoline service station or establishment is one which is typically a physically separate place of business engaged primarily (“primarily” meaning 50 percent or more) in selling gasoline and lubricating oils to the general public at the station or establishment. It may also sell other merchandise or perform minor repair work as an incidental part of the business. (See S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., first session, p. 32.) No difference in application of the terms “gasoline service establishment” and “gasoline service station” was intended by Congress (see Senate Report cited above) and both carry the same meaning.

(b) Under section 3(s)(5) of the prior Act and until February 1, 1969, under section 3(s)(1) of the amended Act, the covered enterprise is always a single establishment—a gasoline service establishment, even though such establishment may be a part of some larger enterprise for purposes of other provisions of the “enterprise” coverage of the new amendments. As noted above this term refers to what is commonly known as a gasoline service station, a separate “establishment.” What constitutes a separate establishment is discussed in §§779.303 through 779.306. While receipts from incidental sales and services are included and counted in determining the establishment's annual gross volume of sales for purposes of enterprise coverage, the establishment's primary source of receipts must be from the sale of gasoline and lubricating oils. (See Senate Report cited above.) An establishment which derives the greater part of its income from the sales of goods other than gasoline or lubricating oils will not be considered a “gasoline service establishment.” The mere fact that an establishment has a gasoline pump as an incidental part of other business activities in which it is principally engaged does not constitute it “a gasoline service establishment” within the meaning and for the purposes of these sections.

§ 779.256   Conditions for enterprise coverage of gasoline service establishments.
top

(a) The requirement that the enterprise must be “an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce” is discussed in §§779.237 through 779.243. Those sections explain which employees are engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, including employees handling, selling, or otherwise working on goods that have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person. In connection with the discussion in those sections as it concerns employees of gasoline service establishments, it should be noted that as a general rule such employees normally are “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce” within the meaning of the Act. For example, gasoline filling station employees servicing motor vehicles used in interstate transportation or in the production of goods for commerce have always been regarded as being “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce” within the meaning of the Act. Such employees will also be considered as engaged in handling, selling or otherwise working on goods that have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person, if the gasoline or lubricating oils or the other goods with respect to which they perform the described activities have come from outside the State in which the establishment is located.

(b) For periods before February 1, 1969, a gasoline service establishment was within the scope of the enterprise coverage provisions of the Act only if its annual gross volume of sales was not less than $250,000, exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated. Until such date, a gasoline service establishment which did not have such an annual gross volume of sales was not a covered enterprise, and enterprise coverage did not extend to it by virtue of the fact that it is an establishment of an enterprise which meets coverage tests of section 3(s). In determining whether the establishment has the requisite annual gross volume of sales the receipts from all sales of the establishment are included without limitation to the receipts from sales of gasoline and lubricating oil. In computing the annual gross volume of sales the gross receipts from all types of sales during a 12-month period are included. These gross receipts are measured by the price paid by the purchaser of the goods or services sold by the establishment (Sen. Rept. 1487, 89th Cong. second session p. 7). Thus, where the establishment sells gasoline for an oil company on commission, annual gross volume is based on the retail sale price and not on the smaller amount retained or received as commissions. A further discussion of what sales are included in the annual gross volume is contained in §§779.258 through 779.260.

(c) In computing the annual gross volume of sales, excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated are not counted. A discussion of the excise taxes which may be excluded under this provision is contained in §§779.261 through 779.264. Whether the particular taxes are “excise taxes at the retail level” depends upon the facts in each case. If the taxes are “excise taxes at the retail level” they will be excludable only if they are “separately stated.” Where a gasoline station posts a sign on or alongside the gasoline pumps indicating that a certain amount per gallon is for a specific excise tax, this will meet the requirement of being “separately stated”. The method of calculating annual gross volume of sales is explained in greater detail in §§779.265 through 779.269.

§ 779.257   Exemption applicable to gasoline service establishments under the prior Act.
top

Section 13(b)(8) of the prior Act (before the 1966 amendments) contained an exemption from the overtime pay requirements for “any employee of a gasoline service station”. This exemption was applicable prior to February 1, 1967, without regard to the annual gross volume of sales of the gasoline service station by which the employee was employed. The removal of this exemption by the 1966 amendments brought non-exempt employees of covered gasoline service stations within the purview of the overtime requirements of the Act for the first time.

Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made or Business Done
top
§ 779.258   Sales made or business done.
top

The Senate Report on the 1966 amendments reaffirmed the intent to measure the “dollar volume of sales or business” including “the gross receipts or gross business” to determine whether an enterprise is covered. This concept was first expressed in the Senate Report on the 1961 amendment (S. Rept. No. 145, 87th Congress, first session, p. 38). The phrase “business done” added by the 1966 amendments to section 3(s) merely reflects with more clarity the economic test of business size expressed in the prior Act in terms of “annual gross volume of sales” and conforms the language of the Act with the Congressional view expressed in the legislative history of the 1961 amendments. Thus, the annual gross volume of an enterprise must include any business activity in which it engages which can be measured on a dollar basis irrespective of whether the enterprise is tested under the prior or amended Act. The Senate Report on the 1966 amendments states:

The intent to measure the “dollar volume of sales or business” including the “gross receipts or gross business” in determining coverage of such an enterprise was expressed in the Senate report above cited at page 38. The addition of the term “business done” to the statutory language should make this intent abundantly plain for the future and remove any possible reason for misapprehension. The annual gross volume of sales made or business done by an enterprise, within the meaning of section 3(s), will thus continue to include both the gross dollar volume of the sales (as defined in sec. 3(k)) which it makes, as measured by the price paid by the purchaser for the property or service sold to him (exclusive of any excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated), and the gross dollar volume of any other business activity in which the enterprise engages which can be similarly measured on a dollar basis. This would include, for example, such activity by an enterprise as making loans or renting or leasing property of any kind. (S. Rept. No. 1487, 89th Congress, second session, pp. 7–8.)

§ 779.259   What is included in annual gross volume.
top

(a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its gross receipts from all types of sales made and business done during a 12-month period. The gross volume of sales made or business done means the gross dollar volume (not limited to income) derived from all sales and business transactions including, for example, gross receipts from service, credit, or other similar charges. Credits for goods returned or exchanged and rebates and discounts, and the like, are not ordinarly included in the annual gross volume of sales or business. The gross volume of sales or business includes the receipts from sales made or business done by the retail or service establishments of the enterprise as well as the sales made or business done by any other establishments of the enterprise, exclusive of the internal transactions between them. Gross volume is measured by the price paid by the purchaser for the property or service sold to him, as stated in the Senate Committee Report (§779.258). It is not measured by profit on goods sold or commissions on sales made for others. The dollar value of sales or business of the entire enterprise in all establishments is added together to determine whether the applicable dollar test is met. The fact that one or more of the retail or service establishments of the enterprise may have less than $250,000 in annual dollar volume and may meet the other requirements for exemption from the pay provisions of the Act under section 13(a)(2), does not exclude the dollar volume of sales or business of that establishment from the annual gross volume of the enterprise. However, the dollar volume of an establishment derived from transactions with other establishments in the same enterprise does not ordinarily constitute part of the annual gross volume of the enterprise as a whole. The computation of the annual gross volume of sales or business of the enterprise is made “exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated”. The taxes which may be excluded are discussed in §§779.261 through 779.264. The methods of calculating the annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise are set forth in §§779.265 through 779.269.

(b) In the ordinary case the functions of a leased department are controlled or unified in such a way that it is included in the establishment and therefore in the enterprise in which it is located, as discussed in §779.225. The applicability of enterprise coverage and certain exemptions to such a leased department depends upon the enterprise coverage and the exemption status of the establishment in which the leased department is located. The annual gross volume of such a leased department is included in the annual gross volume of the establishment in which it is located as well as in the annual gross volume of the enterprise of which such establishment is a part.

(c) Likewise, where franchise or other arrangements result in the creation of a larger enterprise by means of operational restrictions so that the establishment, dealer, or concessionaire is an integral part of the related activities of the enterprise which grants the franchise, right, or concession, as discussed in §§779.229 and 779.232, it will follow that the annual gross volume of sales made or business done of such an enterprise includes the dollar volume of sales or business of each related establishment dealer, or concessionaire.

§ 779.260   Trade-in allowances.
top

Where merchandise is taken in trade when a sale is made, the annual gross volume of sales or business will include the gross amount of the sale before deduction of the allowance on such trade-in merchandise. This is so even though an overallowance or excessive value is allowed on the trade-in merchandise. In turn, when the trade-in merchandise is sold the amount of the sale will be included in the annual gross volume.

Excise Taxes
top
§ 779.261   Statutory provision.
top

Sections 3(s)(1) and 13(a)(2) of the amended Act as well as sections 3(s)(1), 3(s)(2), 3(s)(5), and 13(a)(2)(iv) of the prior Act provide for the exclusion of “excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated” in computing the gross annual volume of sales or business or the annual dollar volume of sales for purposes of certain of the provisions contained in those sections. The Senate Committee report states as follows with respect to this provision:

 *  *  * in determining whether the enterprise or establishment, as the case may be, has the requisite annual dollar volume of sales, excise taxes will not be counted if they are taxes that are collected at the retail level and are separately identified in the price charged the customer for the goods or services at the time of the sale. Excise taxes which are levied at the manufacturer's, wholesaler's, or other distributive level will not be excluded in calculating the dollar volume of sales nor will excise taxes be excluded in cases where the customer is charged a single price for the merchandise or services and the taxes are not separately identified when the sale is made. (S. Rept., 145, 87th Cong., first session, p. 39.)

In applying the above rules to determine annual gross volume of sales or business under section 3(s) or annual dollar volume of sales for purposes of the $250,000 test under section 13(a)(2), excise taxes which (a) are levied at the retail level and (b) are separately stated and identified in the charge to the customer at the time of sale need not be included in the calculation of the gross or dollar volume of sales. Excise taxes which are levied at the manufacturer's, wholesaler's or other distributive level will not, ordinarily, be excluded in calculating the volume of sales, nor will excise taxes, even if levied at the retail level, be excluded in cases where the customer is charged a single price for the merchandise or services and the taxes are not separately identified when the sale is made. Excise taxes will be excludable whether they are levied by the Federal, State, or local government provided that the tax is “levied at the retail level” and “separately stated”.

§ 779.262   Excise taxes at the retail level.
top

(a) Federal excise taxes are imposed at the retail level on highway vehicle fuels other than gasoline under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 4041. Such excise taxes are levied at the retail level on any liquid fuel sold for use, or used in a diesel-powered highway vehicle. A similar tax is imposed on the sale of such special motor fuels as benzene and liquefied petroleum gas when used as a motor fuel. To the extent that these taxes are separately stated to the customer, they may be excluded from gross volume of sales. The extent to which State taxes are levied at the retail level, and thus excludable when separately stated, depends, of course, upon the law of the State concerned. However, as a general rule, State, county, and municipal sales taxes are levied at the retail level, and to the extent that they are separately stated, may be excluded. All State excise taxes on gasoline are, for purposes of section 3(s), taxes levied at the retail level, which, if separately stated, may be excluded.

(b) The circumstances surrounding the levying and collection of the Federal excise taxes on gasoline, tires, and inner tubes reflect that, although they are listed under the title of “Manufacturers Excise Taxes,” they are, in practical operation, taxes “at the retail level.” Federal excise taxes on gasoline, tires, and inner tubes, when “separately stated,” may therefore be excluded in computing the annual gross volume of an enterprise for the purpose of determining coverage under section 3(s)(1) of the Act and section 13(a)(2) for purposes of applying the $250,000 test for determining the retail and service establishment exemption of an establishment in a covered enterprise.

§ 779.263   Excise taxes not at the retail level.
top

There are also a wide variety of taxes levied at the manufacturer's or distributor's level and not at the retail level. It should be noted, however, that the circumstances surrounding the levying and collection of taxes must be carefully considered. The facts concerning the levying and collection of Federal excise taxes on alcoholic beverages and tobacco reflect that such taxes are upon the manufacture of these products and that they are neither levied nor collected at the retail level and thus are not excludable. However, in some cases the circumstances may reflect that despite the fact that such taxes may be levied upon the manufacturer or distributor, nevertheless they may be, in practical operation, taxes at the retail level and may be so regarded for the purpose of this provision.

§ 779.264   Excise taxes separately stated.
top

A tax is separately stated where it clearly appears that it has been added to the sales price as a separate, identifiable amount, even though there was no invoice or sales slip. In the absence of a sales slip or invoice, the amount of the tax may either be separately stated orally at the time of sale, or visually by means of a poster or other sign reasonable designed to inform the purchaser that the amount of the tax, either as a stated sum per unit or measured by the gross amount of the sale, or as a percentage of the price, is included in the sales price. A sign on a gasoline pump indicating in cents per gallon the amount of State and Federal highway fuel excise taxes is an example of “separately stated” taxes.

Computing The Annual Volume
top
§ 779.265   Basis for making computations.
top

The annual gross dollar volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise or establishment consists of the gross receipts from all of its sales or its volume of business done during a 12-month period. Where a computation of the annual gross volume is necessary to determine monetary obligations to employees under the Act whether in an enterprise which has one or more retail or service establishments, or in any establishment in such enterprise, or in any gasoline service establishment, it must be based on the most recent prior experience which it is practicable to use. This was recognized in the Congress when the legislation was under consideration. (S. Rept. No. 145, 87th Cong., first session, p. 38 discusses in detail the calculation of the annual gross volume.) When gross receipts of an enterprise show that the annual dollar volume of sales made or business done meets the statutory tests for coverage and nonexemption, the employer must comply with the Act's monetary provisions from that time on or until such time as the tests are not met. (See §779.266.)

§ 779.266   Methods of computing annual volume of sales or business.
top

(a) No computations of annual gross dollar volume are necessary to determine coverage or exemption in those enterprises in which the gross receipts regularly derived each year from the business are known by the employers to be substantially in excess or substantially under the minimum dollar volume specified in the applicable provision of the Act. Also, where the enterprise or establishment, during the portion of its current income tax year up to the end of the current payroll period, has already had a gross volume of sales or business in excess of the dollar amount specified in the statute, it is plain that its annual dollar volume currently is in excess of the statutory amount, and that the Act applies accordingly. The computation described in paragraph (b) of this section, therefore need not be made. Nor is it required where the enterprise or establishment has not yet in such current year exceeded the statutory amount in its gross volume of sales or business, if it has had, in the most recently ended year used by it for income tax purposes, a gross volume of sales made and business done in excess of the amount specified in the Act. In such event, the enterprise or establishment will be deemed to have an annual gross volume in excess of the statutory amount unless the employer establishes, through use of the method set forth in paragraph (b) of this section, an annual gross volume of sales made or business done which is less than the amount specified in the Act. The method described in paragraph (b) of this section shall be used, as intended by the Congress (see S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong. first session, p. 38), for computation of annual dollar volume in all cases when such a computation becomes necessary in order to determine the applicability of provisions of the Act.

(b) In order to determine, when there may be doubt, whether an enterprise or establishment has an annual gross volume of sales made or business done in excess of the amount specified in the statute, and analysis will be made at the beginning of each quarter-year so that the employer will know whether or not the dollar volume tests have been met for the purpose of complying with the law in the workweeks ending in the current quarter-year. The total of the gross receipts from all its sales or business during a 12-month period which immediately precedes the quarter-year being tested will be the basis for analysis. When it is necessary to make a determination for enterprises or establishments which are operated on a calendar year basis for income tax or sales or other accounting purposes the quarter-year periods tested will coincide with the calendar quarters (January 1–March 31; April 1–June 30; July 1–September 30; October 1–December 31). On the other hand, where enterprises or establishments are operated on a fiscal year basis, which consists of an annual period different from the calendar year, the four quarters of the fiscal period will be used in lieu of calendar quarters in computing the annual volume. Once either basis has been adopted it must be used in making subsequent calculations. The sales records maintained as a result of the accounting procedures used for tax or other business purposes may be utilized in computing the annual dollar volume provided the same accounting procedure is used consistently and that such procedure accurately reflects the annual volume of sales or business.

§ 779.267   Fluctuations in annual gross volume affecting enterprise coverage and establishment exemptions.
top

It is possible that the analysis performed at the beginning of each quarter to determine the applicability of the monetary provisions of the Act may reveal changes in the annual gross volume or other determinative factors which result in the enterprise or establishment meeting or ceasing to meet one or more of the tests for enterprise coverage or establishment exemption. Thus, enterprise coverage may result where the annual volume increases from an amount under to an amount over $250,000. Also, an enterprise having an annual gross volume of more than $1 million and meeting the requirements for a covered retail enterprise under the prior Act on the basis of previous sales analyses may fall below $1 million when the annual gross volume is computed at the beginning of the quarter being tested and as a result qualify only as a newly covered enterprise for the current quarter under the amended Act. Similarly, an enterprise previously subject to new coverage pay standards, having an annual gross volume of more than $250,000 but less than $1 million on the basis of previous sales analyses, may increase its annual gross volume to $1 million or more when recomputed at the beginning of the quarter being tested. It will thus become for the current quarter an enterprise in which employees are subject to the pay standards for employment covered under the Act prior to the amendments, provided that it meets the other conditions as discussed in §779.245.

§ 779.268   Grace period of 1 month for computation.
top

Where it is not practicable to compute the annual gross volume of sales or business under paragraph (b) of §779.266 in time to determine obligations under the Act for the current quarter, an enterprise or establishment may use a 1-month grace period. If this 1-month grace period is used, the computations made under this section will determine its obligations under the Act for the 3-month period commencing 1 month after the end of the preceding calendar or fiscal quarter. Once adopted the same basis must be used for each successive 3-month period.

§ 779.269   Computations for a new business.
top

When a new business is commenced the employer will necessarily be unable for a time to determine its annual dollar volume on the basis of a full 12-month period as described above. In many cases it is readily apparent that the enterprise or establishment will or will not have the requisite annual dollar volume specified in the Act. For example, where the new business consists of a large department store, or a supermarket, it may be clear from the outset that the business will meet the annual dollar volume tests so as to be subject to the requirements of the Act. In other cases, where doubt exists, the gross receipts of the new business during the first quarter year in which it has been in operation will be taken as representative of its annual dollar volume, in applying the annual volume tests of sections 3(s) and 13(a)(2), for purposes of determining its obligations under the Act in workweeks falling in the following quarter year period. Similarly, for purposes of determining its obligations under the Act in workweeks falling within ensuing quarter year periods, the gross receipts of the new business for the completed quarter year periods will be taken as representative of its annual dollar volume in applying the annual volume tests of the Act. After the new business has been in operation for a full calendar or fiscal year, the analysis can be made by the method described in paragraph (b) of §779.266 with use of the grace period described in §779.268, if necessary.

Subpart D—Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments
top
General Principles
top
§ 779.300   Purpose of subpart.
top

Subpart C of this part has discussed the various criteria for determining coverage under the Act of employers and employees in enterprises and establishments that make retail sales of goods and services. This subpart deals primarily with the exemptions from the Act's minimum wage and overtime provisions found in section 13(a) (2), (4), (11), and 13(b)(18) for employees of retail or service establishments. Also discussed are some exemptions for special categories of establishments engaged in retailing goods or services, which do not require for exemption that the particular establishment be a retail or service establishment as defined in the Act. If all the requirements set forth in any of these exemptions are met, to the extent provided therein the employer is relieved from complying with the minimum wage and/or overtime provisions of the Act even though his employees are engaged in interstate or foreign commerce or in the production of goods for such commerce or employed in covered enterprises.

§ 779.301   Statutory provisions.
top

(a) Section 13(a) (2), (4), (11), and section 13(b)(18) of the Act, as amended, grant exemption from the minimum wage provisions of section 6 and the maximum hours provisions of section 7 as follows:

(1) Section 13(a)(2) exempts from minimum wages and overtime pay:

Any employee employed by any retail or service establishment (except an establishment or employee engaged in laundering, cleaning, or repairing clothing or fabrics or an establishment engaged in the operation of a hospital, institution, or school described in section 3(s)(4), if more than 50 per centum of such establishment's annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services is made within the State in which the establishment is located, and such establishment is not in an enterprise described in section 3(s) or such establishment has an annual dollar volume of sales which is less than $250,000 (exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated). A “retail or service establishment” shall mean an establishment 75 per centum of whose annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services (or of both) is not for resale and is recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry.

(2) Section 13(a)(4) exempts from minimum wages and overtime pay:

Any employee employed by an establishment which qualifies as an exempt retail establishment under clause (2) of this sub-section and is recognized as a retail establishment in the particular industry notwithstanding that such establishment makes or processes at the retail establishment the goods that it sells: Provided, That more than 85 per centum of such establishment's annual dollar volume of sales of goods so made or processed is made within the State in which the establishment is located.

(3) Section 13(a)(11) exempts from minimum wages and overtime pay:

Any employee or proprietor in a retail or service establishment which qualifies as an exempt retail or service establishment under clause (2) of this subsection with respect to whom the provisions of sections 6 and 7 would not otherwise apply, engaged in handling telegraphic messages for the public under an agency or contract arrangement with a telegraph company where the telegraph message revenue of such agency does not exceed $500 a month.

(4) Section 13(b)(18) exempts from overtime pay only:

Any employee of a retail or service establishment who is employed primarily in connection with the preparation or offering of food or beverages for human consumption, either on the premises, or by such services as catering, banquet, box lunch, or curb or counter service, to the public, to employees, or to members or guests of members of clubs.

(b) Sections 13(a)(2), (4), (13), (19), and (20) of the prior Act granted exemptions from both the minimum wage provisions of section 6 and the maximum hours provisions of section 7 as follows:

(1) Section 13(a)(2) exempted:

Any employee employed by any retail or service establishment, more than 50 per centum of which establishment's annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services is made within the state in which the establishment is located, if such establishment—

(i) Is not in an enterprise described in section 3(s), or

(ii) Is in such an enterprise and is a hotel, motel or restaurant, or motion picture theater; or is an amusement or recreational establishment that operates on a seasonal basis, or

(iii) Is in such an enterprise and is a hospital, or an institution which is primarily engaged in the care of the sick, the aged, the mentally ill or defective, residing on the premises of such institution, or a school for physically or mentally handicapped or gifted children, or

(iv) Is in such an enterprise and has an annual dollar volume of sales (exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated) which is less than $250,000.

A “retail or service establishment” shall mean an establishment 75 per centum of whose annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services (or both) is not for resale and is recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry.

(2) Section 13(a)(4) provided the same exemption as it now does.

(3) Section 13(a)(13) provided the same exemption as section 13(a)(11) of the present Act.

(4) Section 13(a)(19) exempted:

Any employee of a retail or service establishment which is primarily engaged in the business of selling automobiles, trucks, or farm implements.

(5) Section 13(a)(20) exempted those employees who are now exempt from the overtime provisions only under section 13(b)(18) of the present Act.

(c) Employees who were exempt from the minimum wage and overtime pay requirements under a provision of the prior Act set forth in paragraph (b) of this section, but are no longer exempt from one or both of such requirements under the present Act must be paid minimum wages or overtime pay, as the case may be, in accordance with the pay standards provided for newly covered employment, in any workweek when they perform work within the individual or enterprise coverage of the Act.

“Establishment” Basis of Exemptions
top
§ 779.302   Exemptions depend on character of establishment.
top

Some exemptions depend on the character of the establishment by which an employee is employed. These include the “retail or service establishment” exemptions in sections 13(a) (2), (4), and (11) and the exemptions available to the establishments of the character specified in sections 13(a) (3), (9), and 13(b)(8) (first part). Therefore, if the establishment meets the tests enumerated in these sections, employees “employed by” that establishment are generally exempt from sections 6 and 7. (See §§779.307 to 779.309 discussing “employed by.”) Other exemptions establish two criteria, the character of the establishment and the nature of the conditions of the employment of the particular employee. Such exemptions are set forth in section 13(b)(8) (second part), and section 13(b)(18) and (19). To determine whether the exemptions of these sections apply it is necessary to determine both that the establishment meets the enumerated tests and that the employee is engaged in the enumerated activities or employed under the conditions specified. Thus, under section 13(b)(18) some of the employees of a given employer may be exempt from the overtime pay requirements (but not the minimum wage) of the Act, while others may not.

§ 779.303   “Establishment” defined; distinguished from “enterprise” and “business.”
top

As previously stated in §779.23, the term establishment as used in the Act means a distinct physical place of business. The “enterprise,” by reason of the definition contained in section 3(r) of the Act and the tests enumerated in section 3(s) of the Act, may be composed of a single establishment. The term “establishment,” however, is not synonymous with the words “business” or “enterprise” when those terms are used to describe multiunit operations. In such a multiunit operation some of the establishments may qualify for exemption, others may not. For example, a manufacturer may operate a plant for production of its goods, a separate warehouse for storage and distribution, and several stores from which its products are sold. Each such physically separate place of business is a separate establishment. In the case of chain store systems, branch stores, groups of independent stores organized to carry on business in a manner similar to chain store systems, and retail outlets operated by manufacturing or distributing concerns, each separate place of business ordinarily is a separate establishment.

§ 779.304   Illustrations of a single establishment.
top

(a) The unit store ordinarily will constitute the establishment contemplated by the exemptions. The mere fact that a store is departmentalized will not alter the rule. For example, the typical large department store carries a wide variety of lines which ordinarily are segregated or departmentalized not only as to location within the store, but also as to operation and records. Where such departments are operated as integral parts of a unit, the departmentalized unit taken as a whole ordinarily will be considered to be the establishment contemplated by the exemptions, even if there is diversity of ownership of some of the departments, such as leased departments.

(b) Some stores, such as bakery or tailor shops, may produce goods in a back room and sell them in the adjoining front room. In such cases if there is unity of ownership and if the back room and the front room are operated by the employer as a single store, the entire premises ordinarily will be considered to be a single establishment for purposes of the tests of the exemption, notwithstanding the fact that the two functions of making and selling the goods, are separated by a partition or a wall. (See H. Mgrs. St., 1949, p. 27.)

§ 779.305   Separate establishments on the same premises.
top

Although, as stated in the preceding section, two or more departments of a business may constitute a single establishment, two or more physically separated portions of a business though located on the same premises, and even under the same roof in some circumstances may constitute more than one establishment for purposes of exemptions. In order to effect such a result physical separation is a prerequisite. In addition, the physically separated portions of the business also must be engaged in operations which are functionally separated from each other. Since there is no such functional separation between activities of selling goods or services at retail, the Act recognizes that food service activities of such retail or service establishments as drugstores, department stores, and bowling alleys are not performed by a separate establishment which “is” a “restaurant” so as to qualify for the overtime exemption provided in section 13(b)(8) and accordingly provides a separate overtime exemption in section 13(b)(18) for employees employed by any “retail or service establishments” in such activities in order to equalize the application of the Act between restaurant establishments and retail or service establishments of other kinds which frequently compete with them for customers and labor. (See Sen. Rept. 1487, 89th Cong. first session, p. 32.) For retailing and other functionally unrelated activities performed on the same premises to be considered as performed in separate establishments, a distinct physical place of business engaged in each category of activities must be identifiable. The retail portion of the business must be distinct and separate from and unrelated to that portion of the business devoted to other activities. For example, a firm may engage in selling groceries at retail and at the same place of business be engaged in an unrelated activity, such as the incubation of chicks for sale to growers. The retail grocery portion of the business could be considered as a separate establishment for purposes of the exemption, if it is physically segregated from the hatchery and has separate employees and separate records. In other words, the retail portion of an establishment would be considered a separate establishment from the unrelated portion for the purpose of the exemption if (a) It is physically separated from the other activities; and (b) it is functionally operated as a separate unit having separate records, and separate bookkeeping; and (c) there is no interchange of employees between the units. The requirement that there be no interchange of employees between the units does not mean that an employee of one unit may not occasionally, when circumstances require it, render some help in the other units or that one employee of one unit may not be transferred to work in the other unit. The requirement has reference to the indiscriminate use of the employee in both units without regard to the segregated functions of such units.

§ 779.306   Leased departments not separate establishments.
top

It does not follow from the principles discussed in §779.305 that leased departments engaged in the retail sale of goods or services in a departmentalized store are separate establishments. To the contrary, it is only in rare instances that such leased departments would be separate establishments for purposes of the exemptions. For example, take a situation where the departmentalized retail store, having leased departments, controls the space location, determines the type of goods that may be sold, determines the pricing policy, bills the customers, passes on customers' credit, receives payments due, handles complaints, determines the personnel policies, and performs other functions as well. In such situations the leased department is an integral part of the retail store and considered to be such by the customers. It is clear that such departments are not separate establishments but rather a part of the retail store establishment and will be considered as such for purposes of the exemptions. The same result may follow in the case of leased departments engaged in the retail sale of goods or services in a departmentalized store where all or most of the departments are leased or otherwise individually owned, but which operate under one common trade name and hold themselves out to the public as one integrated business unit.

§ 779.307   Meaning and scope of “employed by” and “employee of.”
top

Section 13(a)(2) as originally enacted in 1938 exempted any employee “engaged in” any retail or service establishment. The 1949 amendments to that section, however, as contained in section 13(a)(2) and (4) exempted any employee “employed by” any establishment described in those exemptions. The 1961 and 1966 amendments retained the “employed by” language of these exemptions. Thus, where it is found that any of those exemptions apply to an establishment owned or operated by the employer the employees “employed by” that establishment of the employer are exempt from the minimum wage and overtime provisions of the Act without regard to whether such employees perform their activities inside or outside the establishment. Thus, such employees as collectors, repair and service men, outside salesmen, merchandise buyers, consumer survey and promotion workers, and delivery men actually employed by an exempt retail or service establishment are exempt from the minimum wage and overtime provisions of the Act although they may perform the work of the establishment away from the premises. As used in section 13 of the Act, the phrases “employee of” and “employed by” are synonymous.

§ 779.308   Employed within scope of exempt business.
top

In order to meet the requirement of actual employment “by” the establishment, an employee, whether performing his duties inside or outside the establishment, must be employed by his employer in the work of the exempt establishment itself in activities within the scope of its exempt business. (See Davis v. Goodman Lumber Co., 133 F. 2d 52 (CA–4) (holding section 13(a)(2) exemption inapplicable to employees working in manufacturing phase of employer's retail establishment); Wessling v. Carroll Gas Co., 266 F. Supp. 795 (N.D. Iowa); Oliveira v. Basteiro, 18 WH Cases 668 (S.D. Texas). See also, Northwest Airlines v. Jackson, 185 F. 2d 74 (CA–8); Walling v. Connecticut Co., 154 F. 2d 522 (CA–2) certiorari denied, 329 U.S. 667; and Wabash Radio Corp. v. Walling, 162 F. 2d 391 (CA–6).)

§ 779.309   Employed “in” but not “by.”
top

Since the exemptions by their terms apply to the employees “employed by” the exempt establishment, it follows that those exemptions will not extend to other employees who, although actually working in the establishment and even though employed by the same person who is the employer of all under section 3(d) of the Act, are not “employed by” the exempt establishment. Thus, traveling auditors, manufacturers' demonstrators, display-window arrangers, sales instructors, etc., who are not “employed by” an exempt establishment in which they work will not be exempt merely because they happen to be working in such an exempt establishment, whether or not they work for the same employer. ( Mitchell v. Kroger Co., 248 F. 2d 935 (CA–8).) For example, if the manufacturer sends one of his employees to demonstrate to the public in a customer's exempt retail establishment the products which he has manufactured, the employee will not be considered exempt under section 13(a)(2) since he is not employed by the retail establishment but by the manufacturer. The same would be true of an employee of the central offices of a chain-store organization who performs work for the central organization on the premises of an exempt retail outlet of the chain ( Mitchell v. Kroger Co., supra.)

§ 779.310   Employees of employers operating multi-unit businesses.
top

(a) Where the employer's business operations are conducted in more than one establishment, as in the various units of a chain-store system or where branch establishments are operated in conjunction with a main store, the employer is entitled to exemption under section 13(a)(2) or (4) for those of his employees in such business operations, and those only, who are “employed by” an establishment which qualifies for exemption under the statutory tests. For example, the central office or central warehouse of a chain-store operation even though located on the same premises as one of the chain's retail stores would be considered a separate establishment for purposes of the exemption, if it is physically separated from the area in which the retail operations are carried on and has separate employees and records. ( Goldberg v. Sunshine Department Stores, 15 W.H. Cases 169 (CA–5) Mitchell v. Miller Drugs, Inc., 255 F. 2d 574 (CA–1); Walling v. Goldblatt Bros., 152 F. 2d 475 (CA–7).)

(b) Under this test, employees in the warehouse and central offices of chainstore systems have not been exempt prior to, and their nonexempt status is not changed by, the 1961 amendments. Typically, chain-store organizations are merchandising institutions of a hybrid retail-wholesale nature, whose wholesale functions are performed through their warehouses and central offices and similar establishments which distribute to or serve the various retail outlets. Such central establishments clearly cannot qualify as exempt establishments. ( A. H. Phillips, Inc. v. Walling, 324 U.S. 490; Mitchell v. C & P Stores, 286 F. 2d 109 (CA–5).) The employees working there are not “employed by” any single exempt establishment of the business; they are, rather, “employed by” an organization of a number of such establishments. Their status obviously differs from that of employees of an exempt retail or service establishment, working in a warehouse operated by and servicing such establishment exclusively, who are exempt as employees “employed by” the exempt establishment regardless of whether or not the warehouse operation is conducted in the same building as the selling or servicing activities.

§ 779.311   Employees working in more than one establishment of same employer.
top

(a) An employee who is employed by an establishment which qualifies as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(2) or (4) is exempt from the minimum wage and overtime requirements of the Act even though his employer also operates one or more establishments which are not exempt. On the other hand, it may be stated as a general rule that if such an employer employs an employee in the work of both exempt and nonexempt establishments during the same workweek, the employee is not “employed by” an exempt establishment during such workweek. It is recognized, however, that employees performing an insignificant amount of such incidental work or performing work sporadically for the benefit of another establishment of their employer nevertheless, are “employed by” their employer's retail establishment. For example, there are situations where an employee of an employer in order to discharge adequately the requirements of his job for the exempt establishment by which he is employed incidentally or sporadically may be called upon to perform some work for the benefit of another establishment. For example, an elevator operator employed by a retail store, in performance of his regular duties for the store incidentally may carry personnel who have a central office or warehouse function. Similarly, a maintenance man employed by such store incidentally may perform work which is for the benefit of the central office or warehouse activities. Also, a sales clerk employed in a retail store in one of its sales departments sporadically may be called upon to release some of the stock on hand in the department for the use of another store.

(b) The application of the principles discussed in §779.310 and in paragraph (a) of this section would not preclude the applicability of the exemption to the employee whose duties require him to spend part of his week in one exempt retail establishment and the balance of the week in another of his employer's exempt retail establishments; provided that his work in each of the establishments will qualify him as “employed” by such a retail establishment at all times within the individual week. As an example, a shoe clerk may sell shoes for part of a week in one exempt retail establishment of his employer and in another of his employer's exempt retail establishments for the remainder of the workweek. In that entire workweek he would be considered to be employed by an exempt retail establishment. In such a situation there is no central office or warehouse concept, nor is the employee considered as performing services for the employer's business organization as a whole since there is no period during the week in which the employee is not “employed by” a single exempt retail establishment.

Statutory Meaning of Retail or Service Establishment
top
§ 779.312   “Retail or service establishment”, defined in section 13(a)(2).
top

The 1949 amendments to the Act defined the term “retail or service establishment” in section 13(a)(2). That definition was retained in section 13(a)(2) as amended in 1961 and 1966 and is as follows:

A “retail or service establishment” shall mean an establishment 75 per centum of whose annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services (or of both) is not for resale and is recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry.

It is clear from the legislative history of the 1961 amendments to the Act that no different meaning was intended by the term “retail or service establishment” from that already established by the Act's definition, wherever used in the new provisions, whether relating to coverage or to exemption. (See S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., first session p. 27; H.R. 75, 87th Cong., first session p. 9.) The legislative history of the 1949 amendments and existing judicial pronouncements regarding section 13(a)(2) of the Act, therefore, will offer guidance to the application of this definition.

§ 779.313   Requirements summarized.
top

The statutory definition of the term “retail or service establishment” found in section 13(a)(2), clearly provides that an establishment to be a “retail or service establishment”: (a) Must engage in the making of sales of goods or services; and (b) 75 percent of its sales of goods or services, or of both, must be recognized as retail in the particular industry; and (c) not over 25 percent of its sales of goods or services, or of both, may be sales for resale. These requirements are discussed below in §§779.314 through 779.341.

Making Sales of Goods and Services “Recognized as Retail”
top
§ 779.314   “Goods” and “services” defined.
top

The term “goods” is defined in section 3(i) of the Act and has been discussed above in §779.14. The Act, however, does not define the term “services.” The term “services,” therefore, must be given a meaning consistent with its usage in ordinary speech, with the context in which it appears and with the legislative history of the exemption as it explains the scope, the purposes and the objectives of the exemption. Although in a very general sense every business might be said to perform a service it is clear from the context and the legislative history that all business establishments are not making sales of “services” of the type contemplated in the Act; that is, services rendered by establishments which are traditionally regarded as local retail service establishments such as the restaurants, hotels, barber shops, repair shops, etc. (See §§779.315 through 779.320.) It is to these latter services only that the term “service” refers.

§ 779.315   Traditional local retail or service establishments.
top

The term “retail” whether it refers to establishments or to the sale of goods or services is susceptible of various interpretations. When used in a specific law it can be defined properly only in terms of the purposes and objectives and scope of that law. In enacting the section 13(a)(2) exemption, Congress had before it the specific object of exempting from the minimum wage and overtime requirements of the Act employees employed by the traditional local retail or service establishment, subject to the conditions specified in the exemption. (See statements of Rep. Lucas, 95 Cong. Rec. pp. 11004 and 11116, and of Sen. Holland, 95 Cong. Rec. pp. 12502 and 12506.) Thus, the term “retail or service establishment” as used in the Act denotes the traditional local retail or service establishment whether pertaining to the coverage or exemption provisions.

§ 779.316   Establishments outside “retail concept” not within statutory definition; lack first requirement.
top

The term “retail” is alien to some businesses or operations. For example, transactions of an insurance company are not ordinarily thought of as retail transactions. The same is true of an electric power company selling electrical energy to private consumers. As to establishments of such businesses, therefore, a concept of retail selling or servicing does not exist. That it was the intent of Congress to exclude such businesses from the term “retail or service establishment” is clearly demonstrated by the legislative history of the 1949 amendments and by the judicial construction given said term both before and after the 1949 amendments. It also should be noted from the judicial pronouncements that a “retail concept” cannot be artificially created in an industry in which there is no traditional concept of retail selling or servicing. (95 Cong. Rec. pp. 1115, 1116, 12502, 12506, 21510, 14877, and 14889; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U.S. 290; Phillips Co. v. Walling, 324 U.S. 490; Kirschbaum Co. v. Walling, 316 U.S. 517; Durkin v. Joyce Agency, Inc., 110 F. Supp. 918 (N.D. Ill.) affirmed sub nom Mitchell v. Joyce Agency, Inc., 348 U.S. 945; Goldberg v. Roberts 291 F. 2d 532 (CA–9); Wirtz v. Idaho Sheet Metal Works, 335 F. 2d 952 (CA–9), affirmed in 383 U.S. 190; Telephone Answering Service v. Goldberg, 290 F. 2d 529 (CA–1).) It is plain, therefore, that the term “retail or service establishment” as used in the Act does not encompass establishments in industries lacking a “retail concept”. Such establishments not having been traditionally regarded as retail or service establishments cannot under any circumstances qualify as a “retail or service establishment” within the statutory definition of the Act, since they fail to meet the first requirement of the statutory definition. Industry usage of the term “retail” is not in itself controlling in determining when business transactions are retail sales under the Act. Judicial authority is quite clear that there are certain goods and services which can never be sold at retail. ( Idaho Sheet Metal Works, Inc. v. Wirtz, 383 U.S. 190, 202, rehearing denied 383 U.S. 963; Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Company, Inc., 383 U.S. 190, 202, rehearing denied 383 U.S. 963.)

§ 779.317   Partial list of establishments lacking “retail concept.”
top

There are types of establishments in industries where it is not readily apparent whether a retail concept exists and whether or not the exemption can apply. It, therefore, is not possible to give a complete list of the types of establishments that have no retail concept. It is possible, however, to give a partial list of establishments to which the retail concept does not apply. This list is as follows:

Accounting firms.

Adjustment and credit bureaus and collection agencies (Mitchell v. Rogers d.b.a. Commercial Credit Bureau, 138 F. Supp. 214 (D. Hawaii); Mill v. United States Credit Bureau, 1 WH Cases 878, 5 Labor Cases par. 60,992 (S.D.Calif.).

Advertising agencies including billboard advertising.

Air-conditioning and heating systems contractors.

Aircraft and aeronautical equipment; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Airplane crop dusting, spraying and seeding firms.

Airports, airport servicing firms and fixed base operators.

Ambulance service companies.

Apartment houses.

Armored car companies.

Art; commercial art firms.

Auction houses (Fleming v. Kenton Whse., 41 F. Supp. 255).

Auto-wreckers' and junk dealers' establishments ( Bracy v. Luray, 138 F. 2d 8 (CA–4); Edwards v. South Side Auto Parts (Mo. App.) 180 SW 2d 1015. (These typically sell for resale.)

Automatic vending machinery; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Banks (both commercial and savings).

Barber and beauty parlor equipment; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Blacksmiths; industrial.

Blue printing and photostating establishments.

Booking agencies for actors and concert artists.

Bottling and bottling equipment and canning machinery; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Broadcasting companies.

Brokers, custom house; freight brokers; insurance brokers, stock or commodity brokers.

Building and loan associations.

Building contractors.

Burglar alarms; establishments engaged in furnishing, installing and repairing for commercial establishments ( Walling v. Thompson, 65 F. Supp. 686 (S.D. Calif.)).

Burial associations ( Gilreath v. Daniel (C.A. 8), 19 WH Cases 370).

Butchers' equipment; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Chambers of Commerce.

Chemical equipment; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Clubs and fraternal organizations with a select or restricted membership.

Common and contract carriers; establishments engaged in providing services, fuel, equipment, or other goods or facilities for the operation of such carriers ( Idaho Sheet Metal Works v. Wirtz, 383 U.S. 190, rehearing denied 383 U.S. 963; Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Co., Inc. 383 U.S. 190, rehearing denied 383 U.S. 963; Boutell v. Whaling ).

Common carrier stations and terminals.

Construction contractors.

Contract Post Offices.

Credit companies, including small loan and personal loan companies ( Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U.S. 290).

Credit rating agencies.

Dentists' offices.

Dentists supply and equipment establishments.

Detective agencies.

Doctors' offices.

Dry cleaners (see 95 Cong. Rec., p. 12503 and §779.337 (b) of this part).

Drydock companies.

Drydock

Dye houses, commercial ( Walling v. Kerr, 47 F. Supp. 852 (E.D. Pa)).

Duplicating, addressing, mailing, mail listings, and letter stuffing establishments ( Goldberg v. Roberts d.b.a. Typing and Mailing Unlimited, 15 WH Cases 100, 42 L.C. par. 31,126 (CA–9; Durkin v. Shone, 112 F. Supp. 375 (E.D. Tenn.); Hanzley v. Hooven Letters, 44 N.Y.S. 2d 398 (City Ct. N.Y. 1943).

Educational institutions (for express exclusion see §779.337(b)).

Electric and gas utilities ( Meeker Cooperative Light & Power Assn. v. Phillips, 158 F. 2d 698 (CA–8); New Mexico Public Service Co. v. Engel, 145 F. 2d 636 (CA–10); Brown v. Minngas Co., 51 F. Supp. 363 (D. Minn.)).

Electric signs; establishments engaged in making, installing and servicing.

Elevators; establishments engaged in repairing (Cf. Muldowney v. Seaberg Elevator Co., 39 F. Supp. 275 (E.D.N.Y.)).

Employment Agencies ( Yunker v. Abbye Employment Agency, Inc., 32 N.Y.S. 2d 715 (N.Y.C. Munic. Ct. 1942)).

Engineering firms.

Factors.

Filling station equipment; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Finance companies ( Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U.S. 290).

Flying schools.

Gambling establishments.

Geological surveys; firms engaged in making.

Heating and air conditioning systems contractors.

Hospital equipment (such as operating instruments, X-ray machines, operating tables, etc.); establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Insurance; mutual, stock and fraternal benefit, including insurance brokers, agents, and claims adjustment offices.

Income tax return preparers.

Investment counseling firms.

Jewelers' equipment; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Job efficiency checking and rating; establishments engaged in the business of supplying.

Labor unions.

Laboratory equipment; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Landscaping contractors.

Laundries (see 95 Cong. Rec. p. 12503 and §779.337 (b) of this part).

Laundry; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in commercial laundry equipment.

Lawyers' offices.

Legal concerns engaged in compiling and distributing information regarding legal developments.

License and legal document service firms.

Loan offices (see credit companies).

Loft buildings or office buildings, concerns engaged in renting and maintenance of ( Kirschbaum v. Walling, 316 U.S. 517; Statement of Senator Holland, 95 Cong. Rec., p. 12505).

Machinery and equipment, including tools—establishments engaged in selling or servicing of construction, mining, manufacturing and industrial machinery, equipment and tools ( Roland Electric Co. v. Walling, 326 U.S. 657; Guess v. Montaque, 140 F. 2d 500 (CA–4); cf. Walling v. Thompson, 65 F. Supp. 686 (S.D. Calif.)).

Magazine subscription agencies ( Wirtz v. Keystone Serv. (C.A. 5), 418 F. 2d 249).

Medical and dental clinics.

Medical and dental laboratories.

Medical and dental laboratory supplies; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Messenger; firms engaged in furnishing commercial messenger service ( Walling v. Allied Messenger Service, 47 F. Supp. 773 (S.D.N.Y.)).

Newspaper and magazine publishers.

Oil well drilling; companies engaged in contract oil well drilling.

Oil well surveying firms ( Straughn v. Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp., 72 F. Supp. 511 (S.D. Tex.)).

Packing companies engaged in slaughtering livestock ( Walling v. Peoples Packing Co., 132 F. 2d 236 (CA–10)).

Painting contractors.

Pharmacists' supplies; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Photography, commercial, establishments engaged in.

Plumbers' equipment; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Plumbing contractors.

Press clipping bureaus.

Printers' and lithographers' supplies; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Printing and binding establishments ( Casa Baldridge, Inc. v. Mitchell, 214 F. 2d 703 (CA–1)).

Protection and Shopping services for industry; establishments engaged in supplying ( Durkin v. Joyce Agency, Inc., 110 F. Supp. 918 (N.D. Ill.) affirmed sub nom. Mitchell v. Joyce Agency, Inc., 348 U.S. 945).

Quarris ( Walling v. Partee, 3 WH Cases 543, 7 Labor Cases, par. 61,721 (M.D. Tenn.)).

Radio and television broadcasting stations and studios.

Ready-mix concrete suppliers.

Real estate companies.

Roofing contractors.

Schools (except schools for mentally or physically handicapped or gifted children): (All now excluded, see §779.337(b)).

School supply distributors.

Security dealers.

Sheet metal contractors.

Ship equipment, commercial; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Shopping analysts services.

Siding and insulation contractors.

Sign-painting shops.

Special trade contractors (construction industry).

Stamp and coupon redemption stores.

Statistical reporting, business and financial data; establishments engaged in furnishing.

Store equipment; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Tax services.

Telegraph and cable companies.

Telephone companies; ( Schmidt v. Peoples Telephone Union of Maryville, Mo., 138 F. 2d 13 (CA–8)).

Telephone answer service; establishments engaged in furnishing. ( Telephone Answering Service v. Goldberg, 15 WH Cases 67, 4 L.C. par. 31,104 (CA–1)).

Title and abstract companies.

Tobacco auction warehouses ( Fleming v. Kenton Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co., 41 F. Supp. 255 (E.D. Ky.); Walling v. Lincoln Loose Leaf Warehouse Co., 59 F. Supp. 601 (E.D. Tenn.)).

Toll bridge companies.

Trade associations.

Transportation equipment, commercial; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Transportation companies.

Travel agencies.

Tree removal firms.

Truck stop establishments ( Idaho Sheet Metal Works, Inc., v. Wirtz, 383 U.S. 190, rehearing denied 383 U.S. 963; Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Co., Inc., 383 U.S. 190, rehearing denied 383 U.S. 963).

Trust companies.

Undertakers' supplies; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Wagers, establishments accepting, as business in which they are engaged.

Warehouse companies; commercial or industrial ( Walling v. Public Quick Freezing and Cold Storage Co., 62 F. Supp. 924 (S.D. Fla.)).

Warehouses equipment and supplies; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Waste removal contractors.

Watchmen, guards and detectives for industries; establishments engaged in supplying ( Walling v. Sondock, 132 F. 2d 77 (CA–5); Walling v. Wattam, 3 WH Cases 726, 8 Labor Cases, par. 62,023 (W.D. Tenn., 1943); Walling v. Lum, 4 WH Cases 465, 8 Labor Cases, par. 62,185 (S.D. Miss., 1944); Walling v. New Orleans Private Patrol Service 57 F. Supp. 143 (E.D. La., 1944); Haley v. Central Watch Service, 4 WH Cases 158, 8 Labor Cases, par. 62,002 (N.D. Ill., 1944)).

Water supply companies ( Reynolds v. Salt River Valley Water Users Assn., 143 F. 2d (863 (CA–9).)

Water well drilling contractors.

Window displays; establishments engaged in the business of dealing in.

Wrecking contractors.

§ 779.318   Characteristics and examples of retail or service establishments.
top

(a) Typically a retail or service establishment is one which sells goods or services to the general public. It serves the everyday needs of the community in which it is located. The retail or service establishment performs a function in the business organization of the Nation which is at the very end of the stream of distribution, disposing in small quantities of the products and skills of such organization and does not take part in the manufacturing process. (See, however, the discussion of section 13(a)(4) in §§779.346 to 779.350.) Such an establishment sells to the general public its food and drink. It sells to such public its clothing and its furniture, its automobiles, its radios and refrigerators, its coal and its lumber, and other goods, and performs incidental services on such goods when necessary. It provides the general public its repair services and other services for the comfort and convenience of such public in the course of its daily living. Illustrative of such establishments are: Grocery stores, hardware stores, clothing stores, coal dealers, furniture stores, restaurants, hotels, watch repair establishments, barber shops, and other such local establishments.

(b) The legislative history of the section 13(a)(2) exemption for certain retail or service establishments shows that Congress also intended that the retail exemption extend in some measure beyond consumer goods and services to embrace certain products almost never purchased for family or noncommercial use. A precise line between such articles and those which can never be sold at retail cannot be drawn. But a few characteristics of items like small trucks and farm implements may offer some guidance; their use is very widespread as is that of consumer goods; they are often distributed in stores or showrooms by means not dissimilar to those used for consumer goods; and they are frequently used in commercial activities of limited scope. The list of strictly commercial items whose sale can be deemed retail is very small and a determination as to the application of the retail exemption in specific cases would depend upon the consideration of all the circumstances relevant to the situation. ( Idaho Sheet Metal Works, Inc. v. Wirtz and Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Company, Inc., 383 U.S. 190, 202, rehearing denied 383 U.S. 963.)

[35 FR 5856, Apr. 9, 1970, as amended at 36 FR 14466, Aug. 6, 1971]

§ 779.319   A retail or service establishment must be open to general public.
top

The location of the retail or service establishment, whether in an industrial plant, an office building, a railroad depot, or a government park, etc., will make no difference in the application of the exemption and such an establishment will be exempt if it meets the tests of the exemption. Generally, however, an establishment, wherever located, will not be considered a retail or service establishment within the meaning of the Act, if it is not ordinarily available to the general consuming public. An establishment, however, does not have to be actually frequented by the general public in the sense that the public must actually visit it and make purchases of goods or services on the premises in order to be considered as available and open to the general public. A refrigerator repair service shop, for example, is available and open to the general public even if it receives all its orders on the telephone and performs all of its repair services on the premises of its customers.

§ 779.320   Partial list of establishments whose sales or service may be recognized as retail.
top

Antique shops.

Auto courts.

Automobile dealers' establishments.

Automobile laundries.

Automobile repair shops.

Barber shops.

Beauty shops.

Bicycle shops.

Billiard parlors.

Book stores.

Bowling alleys.

Butcher shops.

Cafeterias.

Cemeteries.

China, glassware stores.

Cigar stores.

Clothing stores.

Coal yards.

Confectionery stores.

Crematories.

Dance halls.

Delicatessen stores.

Department stores.

Drapery stores.

Dress-suit rental establishments.

Drug stores.

Dry goods stores.

Embalming establishments.

Farm implement dealers.

Filling stations.

Floor covering stores.

Florists.

Funeral homes.

Fur repair and storage shops.

Fur shops.

Furniture stores.

Gift, novelty and souvenir shops.

Grocery stores.

Hardware stores.

Hosiery shops.

Hotels.

Household appliance stores.

Household furniture storage and moving establishments.

Household refrigerator service and repair shops.

Infants' wear shops.

Jewelry stores.

Liquor stores.

Luggage stores.

Lumber yards.

Masseur establishments.

Millinery shops.

Musical instrument stores and repair shops.

Newsstands.

Paint stores.

Public parking lots.

Photographic supply and camera shops.

Piano tuning establishments.

Public baths.

Public garages.

Recreational camps.

Reducing establishments.

Restaurants.

Roadside diners.

Scalp-treatment establishments.

Shoe repair shops.

Shoeshine parlors.

Sporting goods stores.

Stationery stores.

Taxidermists.

Theatres.

Tourist homes.

Trailer camps.

Undertakers.

Variety shops.

Watch, clock and jewelry repair establishments.

[36 FR 14466, Aug. 6, 1971]

§ 779.321   Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment.
top

(a) Only those sales or services to which the retail concept applies may be recognized as retail sales of goods or services for purposes of the exemption. The fact that the particular establishment may have a concept of retailability, in that it makes sales of types which may be recognized as retail, is not determinative unless the requisite portion of its annual dollar volume is derived from particular sales of its goods and services which have a concept of retailability. Thus, the mere fact that an establishment is of a type noted in §779.320 does not mean that any particular sales of such establishment are within the retail concept. As to each particular sale of goods or services, an initial question that must be answered is whether the sales of goods or services of the particular type involved can ever be recognized as retail. The Supreme Court in Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Co., 383 U.S. 190, confirmed the Department's position that (1) The concept of “retailability” must apply to particular sales of the establishment, as well as the establishment or business as a whole, and (2) even as to the establishment whose sales are “variegated” and include retail sales, that nonetheless classification of particular sales of goods or services as ever coming within the concept of retailability must be made. Sales of some particular types of goods or services may be decisively classified as nonretail on the ground that such particular types of goods or services cannot ever qualify as retail whatever the terms of sale, regardless of the industry usage or classification.

(b) An establishment is, therefore, not automatically exempt upon a finding that it is of the type to which the retail concept of selling or servicing is applicable; it must meet all the tests specified in the Act in order to qualify for exemption. Thus, for example, an establishment may be engaged in repairing household refrigerators, and in addition it may be selling and repairing manufacturing machinery for manufacturing establishments. The retail concept does not apply to the latter activities. In such case, the exemption will not apply if the annual dollar volume derived from the selling and servicing of such machinery, and from any other sales and services which are not recognized as retail sales or services, and from sales of goods or services for resale exceeds 25 percent of the establishment's total annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services.

(c) Since there is no retail concept in the construction industry, gross receipts from construction activities of any establishment also engaged in retail selling must be counted as dollar volume from sales not recognized as retail in applying the percentage tests of section 13(a)(2). Also, since construction and the distribution of goods are entirely dissimilar activities performed in industries traditionally recognized as wholly separate and distinct from each other, an employee engaged in construction activities is not employed within the scope of his employer's otherwise exempt retail business in any week in which the employee engages in such construction work, and is therefore (see §779.308) not employed “by” a retail or service establishment within the meaning of the Act in such workweek.

(d) Certain business establishments engage in the retail sale to the general public, as goods delivered to purchasers at a stipulated price, of items such as certain plumbing and heating equipment, electrical fixtures and supplies, and fencing and siding for residential installation. In addition to selling the goods they may also install, at an additional charge, the goods which are sold. Installation which is incidental to a retail sale (as distinguished from a construction or reconstruction contract to do a building alteration, or repair job at a contract price for materials and labor required, see §779.355(a)(1) is considered an exempt activity. By way of example, if the installation for the customer of such goods sold to him at retail requires only minor carpentry, plumbing or electrical work (as may be the case where ordinary plumbing fixtures, or household items such as stoves, garbage disposals, attic fans, or window air conditioners are being installed or replaced), or where only labor of the type required for the usual installation of chain link fences around a home or small business establishment is involved, will normally be considered as incidental to the retail sale of the goods involved (unless, of course, the transaction between the parties is for a construction job at an overall price for the job, involving no retail sale of goods as such). In determining whether such an installation is incidental to a retail sale or constitutes a nonretail construction activity, it is necessary to consider the general characteristics of the entire transaction. Where one or more of the following conditions are present, the installation will normally be considered a construction activity rather than incidental to a retail sale:

(1) The cost to the purchaser of the installation in relation to the sale price of the goods is substantial;

(2) The installation involves substantial structural changes, extensive labor, planning or the use of specialized equipment;

(3) The goods are being installed in conjunction with the construction of a new home or other structure; or

(4) The goods installed are of a specialized type which the general consuming public does not ordinarily have occasion to use.

(e) An auxiliary employee of an exempt retail or service establishment performing clerical, maintenance, or custodial work in the exempt establishment which is related to the establishment's construction activities will, for enforcement purposes, be considered exempt in any workweek if no more than 20 percent of his time is spent in such work.

“Recognized” as Retail “in the Particular Industry”
top
§ 779.322   Second requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment.”
top

If the business is one to which the retail concept is applicable then the second requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment” within that term's statutory definition is that 75 percent of the establishment's annual dollar volume must be derived from sales of goods or services (or of both) which are recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry. Under the Act, this requirement is distinct from the requirement that 75 percent of annual dollar volume be from sales of goods or services “not for resale” (§779.329); many sales which are not for resale lack a retail concept and the fact that a sale is not for resale cannot establish that it is recognized as retail in a particular industry. (See Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Co., 383 U.S. 190.) To determine whether the sales or services of an establishment are recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry, we must inquire into what is meant by the terms “recognized” and “in the particular industry,” and into the functions of the Secretary and the courts in determining whether the sales are recognized as retail in the industry.

§ 779.323   Particular industry.
top

In order to determine whether a sale or service is recognized as a retail sale or service in the “particular industry” it is necessary to identify the “particular” industry to which the sale or service belongs. Some situations are clear and present no difficulty. The sale of clothes, for example, belongs to the clothing industry and the sale of ice belongs to the ice industry. In other situations, a sale or service is not so easily earmarked and a wide area of overlapping exists. Household appliances are sold by public utilities as well as by department stores and by stores specializing in the sale of such goods; and tires are sold by manufacturers' outlets, by independent tire dealers and by other types of outlets. In these cases, a fair determination as to whether a sale or service is recognized as retail in the “particular” industry may be made by giving to the term “industry” its broad statutory definition as a “group of industries” and thus including all industries wherein a significant quantity of the particular product or service is sold. For example, in determining whether a sale of lumber is a retail sale, it is the recognition the sale of lumber occupies in the lumber industry generally which decides its character rather than the recognition such sales occupies in any branch of that industry.

§ 779.324   Recognition “in.”
top

The express terms of the statutory provision requires the “recognition” to be “in” the industry and not “by” the industry. Thus, the basis for the determination as to what is recognized as retail “in the particular industry” is wider and greater than the views of an employer in a trade or business, or an association of such employers. It is clear from the legislative history and judicial pronouncements that it was not the intent of this provision to delegate to employers in any particular industry the power to exempt themselves from the requirements of the Act. It was emphasized in the debates in Congress that while the views of an industry are significant and material in determining what is recognized as a retail sale in a particular industry, the determination is not dependent on those views alone. (See 95 Cong. Rec. pp. 12501, 12502, and 12510; Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Co., 383 U.S. 190; Mitchell v. City Ice Co., 273 F. 2d 560 (CA–5); Durkin v. Casa Baldrich, Inc., 111 F. Supp. 71 (DCPR) affirmed 214 F. 2d 703 (CA–1); see also Aetna Finance Co. v. Mitchell, 247 F. 2d 190 (CA–1).) Such a determination must take into consideration the well-settled habits of business, traditional understanding and common knowledge. These involve the understanding and knowledge of the purchaser as well as the seller, the wholesaler as well as the retailer, the employee as well as the employer, and private and governmental research and statistical organizations. The understanding of all these and others who have knowledge of recognized classifications in an industry, would all be relevant in the determination of the question.

§ 779.325   Functions of the Secretary and the courts.
top

It may be necessary for the Secretary in the performance of his duties under the Act, to determine in some instances whether a sale or service is recognized as a retail sale or particular industry. In the exceptional case where the determination cannot be made on the basis of common knowledge or readily accessible information, the Secretary may gather the information needed for the purpose of making such determinations. Available information on usage and practice in the industry is carefully considered in making such determinations, but the “word-usage of the industry” does not have controlling force; the Secretary “cannot be hamstrung by the terminology of a particular trade” and possesses considerable discretion as the one responsible for the actual administration of the Act. ( Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Co., 383 U.S. 190; and see 95 Cong. Rec. 12501–12502, 12510.) The responsibility for making final decisions, of course, rests with the courts. An employer disagreeing with the determinations of the Secretary and claiming exemption has the burden of proving in a court proceeding that the prescribed percentage of the establishment's sales or services are recognized as retail in the industry and that his establishment qualifies for the exemption claimed by him. (See Wirtz v. Steepleton, cited above, and 95 Cong. Rec. 12510.)

§ 779.326   Sources of information.
top

In determining whether a sale or service is recognized as a retail sale or service in a particular industry, there are available to the Secretary a number of sources of information to aid him in arriving at a conclusion. These sources include: (a) The legislative history of the Act as originally enacted in 1938 and the legislative history of the 1949, 1961, and 1966 amendments to the Act pertaining to those sections in which the term “retail or service establishment” is found, particularly in the section 13(a)(2) exemption; (b) the decisions of the courts during the intervening years; and (c) the Secretary's experience in the intervening years in interpreting and administering the Act. These sources of information enable the Secretary to lay down certain standards and criteria, as discussed in this subpart, for determining generally and in some cases specifically what sales or services are recognized as retail sales or services in particular industries.

§ 779.327   Wholesale sales.
top

A wholesale sale, of course, is not recognized as a retail sale. If an establishment derives more than 25 percent of its annual dollar volume from sales made at wholesale, it clearly cannot qualify as a retail and service establishment. It must be remembered, however, that what is a retail sale for purposes of a sales tax law is not necessarily a retail sale for purposes of the statutory definition of the term “retail or service establishment”. Similarly, a showing that sales of goods or services are not wholesale or are made to the ultimate consumer and are not for resale does not necessarily prove that such sales or services are recognized in the particular industry as retail. ( Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Co., 388 U.S. 190.)

§ 779.328   Retail and wholesale distinguished.
top

(a) The distinction between a retail sale and a wholesale sale is one of fact. Typically, retail sales are made to the general consuming public. The sales are numerous and involve small quantities of goods or services. Wholesale establishments usually exclude the general consuming public as a matter of established business policy and confine their sales to other wholesalers, retailers, and industrial or business purchasers in quantities greater than are normally sold to the general consuming public at retail. What constitutes a small quantity of goods depends, of course, upon the facts in the particular case and the quantity will vary with different commodities and in different trades and industries. Thus, a different quantity would be characteristic of retail sales of canned tomato juice, bed sheets, furniture, coal, etc. The quantity test is a well-recognized business concept. There are reasonably definite limits as to the quantity of a particular commodity which the general consuming public regularly purchases at any given time at retail and businessmen are aware of these buying habits. These buying habits set the standard for the quantity of goods which is recognized in an industry as the subject of a retail sale. Quantities which are materially in excess of such a standard are generally regarded as wholesale and not retail quantities.

(b) The sale of goods or services in a quantity approximating the quantity involved in a normal wholesale transaction and as to which a special discount from the normal retail price is given is generally regarded as a wholesale sale in most industries. Whether the sale of such a quantity must always involve a discount in order to be considered a wholesale sale depends upon industry practice. If the practice in a particular industry is such that a discount from the normal retail price is not regarded in the industry as significant in determining whether the sale of a certain quantity is a wholesale sale, then the question of whether the sale of such a quantity will be considered a wholesale sale would be determined without reference to the price. In some industries, the sale of a small quantity at a discount may also be regarded as a wholesale sale, in which case it will be so treated for purposes of the exemption. Generally, as the Supreme Court has recognized ( Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Co., 383 U.S. 1900), both the legislative history and common parlance suggest that “the term retail becomes less apt as the quantity and the price discount increases in a particular transaction.”

(c) In some cases, a purchaser contracts for the purchase of a large quantity of goods or services to be delivered or performed in smaller quantities or jobs from time to time as the occasion requires. In other cases, the purchaser instead of entering into a single contract for the entire amount of goods, or services, receives a series of regular deliveries of performances pursuant to a quotation, bid, estimate, or general business arrangement or understanding. In these situations, if the total quantity of goods or services which is sold is materially in excess of the total quantity of goods or services which might reasonably be purchased by a member of the general consuming public during the same period, it will be treated as a wholesale quantity for purposes of the statutory definition of the term “retail or service establishment”, in the absence of clear evidence that under such circumstances such a quantity is recognized as a retail quantity in the particular industry. For example, if a food service firm contracts with a college to provide meals for the latter's boarding students for a term, in consideration of payment by the college of a stipulated sum based on the number of students registered or provided with meals, the services are being sold in a wholesale, rather than a retail quantity. If such a contract is entered into as a result of formal bids, as noted in paragraph (d) of this section, this would be an additional reason for nonrecognition of the transaction as a retail sale of such services.

(d) Sales made pursuant to formal bid procedures, such as those utilized by the agencies of Federal, State, and local governments and oftentimes by commercial and industrial concerns involving the issuance by the buyer of a formal invitation to bid on certain merchandise or services for delivery in accordance with prescribed terms and specifications, are not recognized as retail sales.

§ 779.329   Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.
top

In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type of purchaser of goods or services are determining factors in whether a sale or service is recognized as retail in the particular industry. In other industries a sale or service may be recognized as retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale is recognized as retail regardless of the type of customer, its character as such will not be affected by the character of the customer, with reference to whether he is a private individual or a business concern, or by the use the purchaser makes of the purchased commodity. For example, if the sale of a single automobile to anyone for any purpose is recognized as a retail sale in the industry, it will be considered as a retail sale for purposes of the exemption whether the customer be a private individual or an industrial concern or whether the automobile is used by the purchaser for pleasure purposes or for business purposes. If a sale of a particular quantity of coal is recognized in the industry as a retail sale, its character as such will not be affected by the fact that it is sold for the purpose of heating an office building as distinguished from a private dwelling. If the repair of a wash basin is recognized in the industry as a retail service, its character as such will not be affected by the fact that it is a wash basin in a factory building as distinguished from a wash basin in a private dwelling house. It must be remembered that these principles apply only to those sales of goods or services which have a retail concept, that is, where the subject matter is “retailable.” See §779.321. The “industry-recognition” question as to whether such sales are recognized as retail in the industry has no relevancy if in fact the goods and services sold are not of a “retailable” character, as previously explained. If the subject of the sale does not come within the concept of retailable items contemplated by the statute, there can be no recognition in any industry of the sale of the goods or services as retail, for purposes of the Act, even though the nomenclature used by the industry members may put a retail label on the transaction. (See Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Co., 383 U.S. 190; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U.S. 290.)

Sales Not Made for Resale
top
§ 779.330   Third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment.”
top

The third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment” within that term's statutory definition is that 75 percent of the retail or service establishment's annual dollar volume must be from sales of goods or of services (or of both) which are not made for resale. At least three-fourths of the total sales of goods or services (or of both) (measured by annual dollar volume) must not be made for resale. Except under the special provision in section 3(n) of the Act, discussed in §779.335, the requirement that 75 percent of the establishment's dollar volume be from sales of goods or services “not for resale” is a separate test and a sale which “for resale” cannot be counted toward the required 75 percent even if it is recognized as retail in the particular industry. The prescribed 75 percent must be from sales which are both not for resale and recognized as retail.

§ 779.331   Meaning of sales “for resale.”
top

Except with respect to a specific situation regarding certain building materials, the word “resale” is not defined in the Act. The common meaning of “resale” is the act of “selling again.” A sale is made for resale where the seller knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the goods or services will be resold, whether in their original form, or in an altered form, or as a part, component or ingredient of another article. Where the goods or services are sold for resale, it does not matter what ultimately happens to such goods or services. Thus, the fact that the goods are consumed by fire or no market is found for them, and are, therefore, never resold does not alter the character of the sale which is made for resale. Similarly, if at the time the sale is made, the seller has no knowledge or reasonable cause to believe that the goods are purchased for the purpose of resale, the fact that the goods later are actually resold is not controlling. In considering whether there is a sale of goods or services and whether such goods or services are sold for resale in any specific situation, the term “sale” includes, as defined in section 3(k) of the Act, “any sale, exchange, contract to sell, consignment for sale, shipment for sale, or other disposition.” Thus, under the definition sales by an establishment to a competitor are regarded as sales for resale even though made without profit. ( Northwestern-Hanna Fuel Co. v. McComb, 166 F. 2d 932 (CA–8).) Similarly, sales for distribution by the purchaser for business purposes are sales for resale under the “other disposition” language of the definition of “sale” even though distributed at no cost to the ultimate recipient. (See Mitchell v. Duplicate Photo Service, 13 WH Cases 71, 31 L.C. Par. 70,287 (S.D. Cal. 1956) accord, Mitchell v. Sherry Corine Corporation, 264 F. 2d 831 (CA–4) (sale of meals to airlines for distribution to their passengers).) It should be noted, however, that occasional transfer of goods from the stock of one retail or service establishment to relieve a shortage in another such establishment under the same ownership will not be considered as sales for resale.

§ 779.332   Resale of goods in an altered form or as parts or ingredients of other goods or services.
top

Sale for resale includes the sale of goods which will be resold in their original form, in an altered form, or as a part or ingredient of another article. A sale of goods which the seller knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, will be resold after processing or manufacture is a sale for resale. Thus, sales of parts with the expectation that they will be incorporated in aircraft and that the aircraft will be sold clearly are sales for resale. ( Arnold v. Ben Kanowsky, Inc., 361 U.S. 388.) Similarly, the sale of lumber to furniture or box factories, or the sale of textiles to clothing manufacturers, is a sale for resale even though the goods are resold in the form of furniture or clothing. The principle is also illustrated in cases where the article sold becomes a part or an ingredient of another, such as scrap metal in steel, dyes in fabrics, flour in bread and pastries, and salt in food or ice in beverages. ( Mitchell v. Douglas Auto Parts Co., 11 WH Cases 807, 25 L.C. Par. 68, 119 (N.D. Ill., 1954).) The fact that goods sold will be resold as a part of a service in which they are used or as a part of a building into which they are incorporated does not negate the character of the sale as one “for resale.” ( Mitchell v. Furman Beauty Supply, 300 F. 2d 16 (CA–3); Mayol v. Mitchell, 280 F. 2d 477 (CA–1), cert. denied 364 U.S. 902; Goldberg v. Kleban Eng. Corp., 303 F. 2d 855 (CA–5).)

§ 779.333   Goods sold for use as raw materials in other products.
top

Goods are sold for resale where they are sold for use as a raw material in the production of a specific product to be sold, such as sales of coal for the production of coke, coal gas, or electricity, or sales of liquefied-petroleum-gas for the production of chemicals or synthetic rubber. However, the goods are not considered sold for resale if sold for general industrial or commercial uses, such as coal for use in laundries, bakeries, nurseries, canneries, or for space heating, or ice for use by grocery stores or meat markets in cooling and preserving groceries and meat to be sold. Similarly, ice used for cooling soft drinks while in storage will not be considered sold for resale. On the other hand, ice or ice cubes sold for serving soft drinks or other beverages will be considered as sales for resale.

§ 779.334   Sales of services for resale.
top

The same principles apply in the case of sales of services for resale. A sale of services where the seller knows or has reasonable cause to believe will be resold is a sale for resale. Where, for example, an establishment reconditions and repairs watches for retail jewelers who resell the services to their own customers, the services constitute a sale for resale. Where a garage repairs automobiles for a secondhand automobile dealer with the knowledge or reasonable cause to believe that the automobile on which the work is performed will be sold, the service performed by the garage is a sale for resale. The services performed by a dental laboratory in the making of artificial teeth for the dentist for the use of his patients is a sale of services (as well as of goods) for resale. The services of a fur repair and storage establishment performed for other establishments who sell these services to their own customers, constitute sales for resale. As in the case of the sale of goods, in certain circumstances, sales of services to a business for a specific use in performing a different service which such business renders to its own customers are in economic effect sales for resale as a part of the service that the purchaser in turn sells to his customers, even though such services are consumed in the process of performance of the latter service. For example, if a storage establishment uses mothproofing services in order to render satisfactory storage services for its customers, the sale of such mothproofing services to that storage establishment will be considered a sale for resale.

§ 779.335   Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.
top

Section 3(n) of the Act, as amended, excludes from the category of sales for resale “the sale of goods to be used in residential or farm building construction, repair or maintenance: Provided, That the sale is recognized as a bona fide retail sale in the industry.” Under this section a sale of building materials to a building contractor or a builder for use in residential or farm building, repair or maintenance is not a sale for resale, provided, the sale is otherwise recognized as a bona fide retail sale in the industry. If the sale is not so recognized it will be considered a sale for resale. Thus, only bona fide retail sales of building materials to a building contractor or a builder for the uses described would be taken out of the category of sales for resale. ( Sucrs. De A. Mayol & Co. v. Mitchell, 280 F. 2d 477 (CA–1); Elder v. Phillips & Buttroff Mfg. Co., 23 L.C. Par. 67,524 (Tenn., 1958).) The legislative history of the amendment indicates that it is not the intent of its sponsors to remove from the category of sales for resale such sales, for example, as sales of lumber to a contractor to build a whole residential subdivision. (See 95 Cong. Rec. 12533–12535; Sen. St. ibid; 14877.)

§ 779.336   Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.
top

Sales of building materials to a contractor or speculative builder for the construction, maintenance or repair of commercial property or any other property not excepted in section 3(n) of the Act, as explained above, will be considered as sales for resale. (See §§779.332 and 779.335.) Some employers who are dealers in building materials are also engaged in the business of building contractors or speculative builders. Building materials for the carrying on of the employer's contracting or speculative building business often are supplied by the employer himself from or through his building materials establishment. In the analysis of the sales of the building materials establishment for the purpose of determining the qualification of such establishment as a “retail or service establishment” all transfers of stock made by the employer from or through his building materials establishment to his building business for the construction, maintenance or repair of commercial property or any other property not excepted in section 3 (n) of the Act will be considered as sales made by such establishment for resale.

General Tests of Exemption Under Section 13(a)(2)
top
§ 779.337   Requirements of exemption summarized.
top

(a) An establishment which is a “retail or service establishment” within the Act's statutory definition of that term (See discussion in §§779.312 to 779.336) must, to qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act (See §779.301), meet both of the following tests:

(1) More than 50 percent of the retail or service establishment's total annual dollar volume of sales must be derived from sales of goods or services (or both) which are made within the State in which the establishment is located; and

(2) Either:

(i) The retail or service establishment must not be in an enterprise of the type described in section 3(s), or

(ii) If the retail or service establishment is in an enterprise of the type described in 3(s), it has an annual volume of sales (exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated) of less than $250,000.

(b) The language of the statute in section 13(a)(2) expressly excludes from the exemption an establishment or employee engaged in laundering, cleaning, or repairing clothing or fabrics or an establishment engaged in the operation of a hospital, institution, or school described in section 3(s)(4) of the Act. No exemption for these is provided under this section even if the establishment meets the tests set forth in paragraph (a) of this section. (See §779.338(b).) With respect to laundering and drycleaning establishments, which Congress found to lack a retail concept (See §779.317) and had provided with a separate exemption in former section 13(a)(3) of the Act, repealed by the 1966 amendments, this exclusion simply clarifies the congressional intent to cover employees in such work under section 3(s)(2) of the present Act and to make sure that no exemption under 13(a)(2) will be construed so as to defeat the purpose of repealing the prior special exemption.

§ 779.338   Effect of 1961 and 1966 amendments.
top

(a) The 1961 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act narrowed the exemption for retail or service establishments by permitting section 13(a)(2) to be applied only to an establishment which was not in a covered enterprise, or (if it was in such an enterprise) which had an annual gross volume of sales of less than $250,000 (exclusive of specified taxes). There were certain exemptions to this general principle. These exceptions were set out in section 13(a)(2)(ii) and (iii). The establishments enumerated therein were exempt whether or not they were in a covered enterprise and regardless of the annual dollar volume of sales. They were: Hotels, motels, restaurants, motion picture theaters, seasonally operated amusement or recreational establishments, hospitals, institutions primarily engaged in the care of the sick, the aged, the mentally ill or defective residing on the premises of the institution, and schools for physically or mentally handicapped or gifted children. These establishments were exempt if they met the basic 50 percent in State sales test and the 75 percent retail sales test of section 13(a)(2). The 1966 amendments to the Act repealed sections 13(a)(2)(ii) and (iii). Now to be exempt under section 13(a)(2) hotels, motels, and restaurants must meet the same tests as other retail or service establishments (see §779.337). Seasonal amusement or recreational establishments and motion picture theaters now have special exemptions from both the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions of the Act as provided by the 1966 amendments in sections 13(a)(3) and 13(a)(9) respectively.

(b) Certain establishments which were previously exempt under section 13(a)(2) prior to the 1966 amendments have been specifically excluded from this exemption as a result of the amendments, even though they may still qualify as retail or service establishments under the definition of such an establishment in that section. These are hospitals, institutions primarily engaged in the care of the sick, the aged, the mentally ill or defective residing on the premises of the institution, and schools for physically or mentally handicapped or gifted children. However, such institutions have been recognized as having a retail concept and where the nature of their operations has not changed and where they otherwise satisfy the Act's definition of a “retail or service establishment”, certain food service employees employed by such institutions will be considered to be exempt from the Act's overtime pay provisions under section 13(b)(18), exemptions for their administrative or executive employees will not be defeated by nonexempt work occupying less than 40 percent of the employee's time, and full-time students may be employed in accordance with the special minimum wage provisions of section 14 of the Act and part 519 of this chapter.

Sales Made Within the State
top
§ 779.339   More than 50 percent intrastate sales required.
top

The first test specified in section 13 (a)(2) is that more than 50 percent of the sales of goods or of services (or of both) of a “retail or service establishment” (Measured by annual dollar volume) must be made “within the State in which the establishment is located”. This limitation means that such establishment must be primarily engaged (more than 50 percent) in selling to or serving customers within its State. If the establishment is engaged to the extent of 50 percent or more in selling to or serving customers outside the State of its location, the requirement is not met and the establishment cannot qualify for exemption.

§ 779.340   Out-of-State customers.
top

Whether the sale or service is made to an out-of-State customer is a question of fact. In order for a customer to be considered an out-of-State customer, some specific relationship between him and the seller has to exist to indicate his out-of-State character. Sales made to the casual cash-and-carry customer of a retail or service establishment, who, for all practical purposes, is indistinguishable from the mass of customers who visit the establishment, are sales made within the State even though the seller knows or has reason to believe, because of his proximity to the State line or because he is frequented by tourists, that some of the customers who visit his establishment reside outside the State. If the customer is of that type, sales made to him are sales made within the State even if the seller knows in the particular instance that the customer resides outside the State. On the other hand, a sale is made to an out-of-State customer and, therefore, is not a sale made “within the State” in which the establishment is located, if delivery of the goods is made outside the State. It should be noted that sales of goods or services that are conditioned upon acceptance or rejection by an out-of-State source are interstates sales and not sales made within the State for purposes of section 13(a)(2). For example, a contract entered into in the State where the customer resides for the delivery of a magazine to the customer's residence, is an interstate sale if the contract must be approved by the out-of-State home office of the company publishing the magazine before it becomes effective.

§ 779.341   Sales “made within the State” and “engagement in commerce” distinguished.
top

Sales to customers located in the same State as the establishment are sales made “within the State” even though such sales may constitute engagement in interstate commerce as where the sale: (a) Is made pursuant to prior orders from customers for goods to be obtained from outside the State; (b) contemplates the purchase of goods from outside the State to fill a customer's order; or (c) is made to a customer for use in interstate commerce or in production of goods for such commerce.

Computing Annual Dollar Volume and Combination of Exemptions
top
§ 779.342   Methods of computing annual volume of sales.
top

The tests as to whether an establishment qualifies for exemption under section 13(a)(2) of the Act are specified in terms of the “annual dollar volume of sales” of goods or of services (or both) and percentages thereof. The “annual dollar volume of sales” of an establishment consists of the gross receipts from all sales of the establishment during a 12-month period. The methods of computing it for purposes of determining whether the establishment qualifies under the tests of the exemption are the same as the methods of calculating whether the annual gross volume of sales or business of an enterprise or an establishment meets the statutory dollar tests for coverage. These are discussed in §§779.265 to 779.269. However, for purposes of the exemption tests the specified percentages are based on annual dollar volume before deduction of those taxes which are excluded in determining whether the $250,000 test is met. The exemption tests are in terms of the annual dollar volume of the establishment. This will include dollar volume from transactions with other establishments in the same enterprise, even though such transactions within an enterprise may not be part of the annual gross volume of the enterprise's sales made or business done (see §779.259).

§ 779.343   Combinations of exemptions.
top

(a) An employee may be engaged in a particular workweek in two or more types of activities for each of which a specific exemption is provided by the Act. The combined work of the employee during such a workweek may not satisfy the requirements of either exemption. It is not the intent of the Act, however, that an exemption based on the performance of one exempt activity should be defeated by the performance of another activity which has been made the basis of an equivalent exemption under another provision of the Act. Thus, where an employee during a particular workweek is exclusively engaged in performing two or more activities to which different exemptions are applicable, each of which activities considered separately would be an exempt activity under the applicable exemption if it were the sole activity of the employee for the whole workweek in question, as a matter of enforcement policy the employee will be considered exempt during such workweek. If the scope of such exemptions is not the same, the exemption applicable to the employee will be equivalent to that provided by whichever exemption provision is more limited in scope.

(b) In the case of an establishment which sells both goods and services at retail and which qualifies as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(2), but cannot, as a whole, meet the tests of section 13(a)(4) because it sells services as well as goods, a combination of section 13(a)(2) and 13(a)(4) exemptions may nevertheless be available for employees of the establishment who make or process, on the premises, goods which it sells. Such employees employed by an establishment which, as a whole, meets the tests set forth in section 13(a)(2), will be considered exempt under this combination exemption if the establishment, on the basis of all its activities other than sales of services, would meet the tests of section 13(a)(4).

(c) Where two or more exemptions are applicable to an employee's work or employment during a workweek and where he may be exempt under a combination of exemptions stated above, the availability of a combination exemption will depend on whether the employee meets all the requirements of each exemption which it is sought to combine.

Engaging in Manufacturing and Processing Activities; Section 13(a)(4)
top
§ 779.345   Exemption provided in section 13(a)(4).
top

The section 13(a)(4) exemption (see §779.301) exempts any employee employed by a retail establishment which meets the requirements for exemption under section 13(a)(2), even though the establishment makes or processes on its own premises the goods that it sells, provided, that more than 85 percent of such establishment's annual dollar volume of sales of the goods so made or processed is made within the State in which the establishment is located, and other prescribed tests are met.

§ 779.346   Requirements for exemption summarized.
top

An establishment to qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(4) must be an exempt retail establishment under section 13(a)(2); that is, 75 percent of its annual dollar volume of sales of goods must not be for resale, 75 percent of its annual dollar volume of sales of goods must be recognized as retail in its industry, over 50 percent of its annual dollar volume of sales of goods must be made within the State in which the establishment is located, and its annual dollar volume of sales must be under $250,000. In addition, the establishment must meet the following three tests:

(a) The establishment must be recognized as a retail establishment in the particular industry.

(b) The goods which the exempt establishment makes or processes must be made or processed at the establishment which sells the goods.

(c) More than 85 percent of the establishment's annual dollar volume of sales of the goods which it makes or processes must be made within the State in which the establishment is located. (See Act, section 13(a)(2); H. Rept. No. 1453, 81st Cong. first session, p. 27; Arnold v. Ben Kanowsky, Inc., 361 U.S. 388.)

§ 779.347   Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.
top

The section 13(a)(4) exemption requires the establishment to be recognized as a retail establishment in the particular industry. This test limits the exemption to retail establishments only, and excludes factories as such and establishments to which the retail concept does not apply. In other words this test requires that the establishment as a whole be recognized as a retail establishment although it makes or processes at the establishment the goods it sells. Typical of the establishment which may be recognized as retail establishments under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process the goods they sell and meet the other tests for exemption. Clearly factories as such are not “recognized retail establishments” and would not be eligible for this exemption. (See 95 Cong. Rec. pp. 11001, 11200, 11216, and 14942.)

§ 779.348   Goods must be made at the establishment which sells them.
top

(a) Further to make certain that the exemption applies to retail establishments only and not to factories, an additional requirement of the exemption is that the goods which the exempt establishment makes or processes must be made or processed at the establishment which sells the goods. The exemption does not apply to an establishment which makes or processes goods for sale to customers who will go to other places to buy them. Thus an establishment that makes or processes any goods which the employer will sell from another establishment, is not exempt. If the establishment making the goods does not sell such goods but makes them for the purpose of selling them at other establishments the establishment making the goods is a factory and not a retail establishment.

(b) Where the making or processing of the goods takes place away from the selling establishment, the section 13(a)(4) requirement that both the making or processing and selling take place at the same establishment cannot be met. This will be true even though the place at which the goods are made or processed services the retail selling establishment exclusively. In such a situation, while the selling establishment may qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(2), the separate establishment at which the goods are made or processed will not be exempt. The latter is a manufacturing establishment. For example, a candy kitchen manufacturing candy for sale at separate retail outlets is a manufacturing establishment and not a retail establishment. ( Fred Wolferman, Inc. v. Gustafson, 169 F. 2d 759 (CA–8.))

(c) The fact that goods made or processed on the premises of a bona fide retail establishment are sold by the establishment through outside salesmen (as, for example, department store salesmen taking orders from housewives for draperies) will not defeat the exemption if otherwise applicable. On the other hand, in the case of a factory or similar establishment devoted to making or processing goods, the fact that its goods are sold at retail by outside salesmen provides no ground for recognizing the establishment as a retail establishment or qualifying it for exemption.

§ 779.349   The 85-percent requirement.
top

The final requirement for the section 13(a)(4) exemption is that more than 85 percent of the establishment's sales of the goods it makes or processes, measured by annual dollar volume, must consist of sales made within the State in which the establishment is located. A retail establishment of the type intended to be exempt under this exemption may also sell goods which it does not make or process; the 85-percent requirement applies only to the sales of goods which are made or processed at the establishment. This must not be confused with the additional test which requires that the establishment, to be exempt, must derive more than 50 percent of its entire annual dollar volume of sales of goods from sales made within the State. (See §779.339.) In other words, more than 85 percent of the establishment's annual dollar volume of sales of goods made or processed at the establishment, and more than 50 percent of the establishment's total annual dollar volume of sales of all the goods sold by the establishment, must be derived from sales made within the State. An establishment will not lose an otherwise applicable exemption under section 13(a)(4) merely because some of its sales of goods made or processed at the establishment are sales for resale or are not recognized as retail sales in the particular industry. Sales for resale, such as wholesale sales, and other sales not recognized as retail sales in the industry, will be counted in the 25-percent tolerance permitted by the exemption. (Cf. Arnold v. Ben Kanowsky, Inc., 361 U.S. 388.) Thus, for example, a bakery otherwise meeting the tests of 13(a)(4) making and selling baked goods on the premises nevertheless will qualify as an exempt retail establishment even though it engages in the sale of baked goods to grocery stores for resale if such sales, together with other sales not recognized as retail in the industry, do not exceed 25 percent of the total annual dollar volume of the establishment.

§ 779.350   The section 13(a)(4) exemption does not apply to service establishments.
top

The section 13(a)(4) exemption applies to retail establishments engaged in the selling of goods. It does not apply to service establishments. If the establishment is a service establishment, it must qualify under section 13(a)(2) in order to be exempt. A retail establishment selling goods, however, also may perform services incidental or necessary to the sale of such goods, such as a delivery service by a bakery store or installation of antennas by a radio dealer for his customers, without affecting the character of the establishment as a retail establishment qualified for exemption under section 13(a)(4).

Engaging in Contract Telegraph Agency Operations; Section 13(a)(11)
top
§ 779.351   Exemption provided.
top

Section 13(a)(11) (See §779.301) exempts from sections 6 and 7 of the Act any employee or proprietor who is engaged in handling telegraphic messages for the public in a retail or service establishment which qualifies as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2), if the conditions specified in section 13(a)(11) are met and the provisions of section 6 and 7 of the Act would not otherwise apply.

§ 779.352   Requirements for exemption.
top

The requirements of the exemption are: (a) The establishment in which the employee or proprietor works must qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act; (b) the employee or proprietor must be engaged in handling telegraphic messages for the public pursuant to an agency or contract arrangement with a telegraph company; (c) such employee or proprietor must be one to whom the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions of the Act would not apply in the absence of such handling of telegraphic messages (See Western Union Tel. Co. v. McComb 165 F. 2d. 65 (CA–6), certiorari denied, 333 U.S. 362); and (d) the exemption applies only where the telegraphic message revenue does not exceed $500 a month. For purposes of this exemption only, in determining whether a retail or service establishment meets the percentage tests contained in section 13(a)(2) of the Act, the receipts from the telegraphic message agency will not be included.

Classification of Sales and Establishments in Certain Industries
top
§ 779.353   Basis for classification.
top

The general principles governing the application of the 13(a)(2) and 13(a)(4) exemptions are explained in detail earlier in the subpart. It is the purpose of the following sections to show how these principles apply to establishments in certain specific industries. In these industries the Divisions have made special studies, held hearings or consulted with representatives of industry and labor, to ascertain the facts. Based upon these facts the following determinations have been made as to which sales or establishments are, and which are not, recognized as retail in the particular industry.

Lumber and Building Materials Dealers
top
§ 779.354   Who may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.
top

(a) Section 13(a)(2). An establishment engaged in selling lumber and building materials may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption. It must appear that:

(1) The establishment is not in an enterprise described in section 3(s) of the Act or, if it is, its annual dollar volume of sales (exclusive of excise taxes at the retail level which are separately stated) is less than $250,000; and

(2) More than 50 percent of the establishment's annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services is made within the State in which the establishment is located; and

(3) 75 percent or more of the establishment's annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services (or of both) is made from sales which are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales of goods or services in the industry.

These requirements are further explained in §§779.301 through 779.343.

(b) Section 13(a)(4). An establishment which makes or processes lumber and building materials which it sells may qualify as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(4) of the Act if it meets all the requirements (see Arnold v. Kanowsky, 361 U.S. 388) of that exemption. It must appear that:

(1) The establishment qualifies as an exempt retail establishment under section 13(a)(2) (see paragraph (a) of this section and §779.350); and

(2) The establishment is recognized as a retail establishment in the industry (see §779.347 and paragraph (c) of this section); and

(3) The goods which such establishment makes or processes for sale are made or processed at the retail establishment which sells them (see §779.348); and

(4) More than 85 percent of the annual dollar volume derived by the retail establishment from sales of goods so made or processed therein is made within the State in which the establishment is located (see §§779.349, 779.339 through 779.341).

(c) Establishments recognized as retail in the industry. An establishment which meets the requirements for exemption under section 13(a)(4) which are stated in paragraphs (b)(1), (3), and (4) of this section is recognized as retail establishment in the industry within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2) of this section if its annual dollar volume of sales of goods made or processed at the establishment does not exceed 50 percent of the annual dollar volume which it derives from sales that are recognized as retail and are not made for resale.

(d) Establishments lacking a “retail concept .” The exemptions provided by sections 13(a)(2) and 13(a)(4) of the Act do not apply to establishments in an industry in which there is no traditional concept of retail selling or servicing (see §779.316), such as the establishment of a building contractor (see §779.317; Goldberg v. Dakota Flooring Co., 15 WH Cases 305), or a factory (see §779.347).

§ 779.355   Classification of lumber and building materials sales.
top

(a) General. In determining, for purposes of the section 13(a)(2) and (4) exemptions, whether 75 percent of the annual dollar volume of the establishment's sales which are not for resale and are recognized as retail in the industry, such sales will be considered to include all sales of lumber and building materials by the establishment which meet all the requirements for such classification as previously explained in this subpart, but will not be considered to include the transactions noted in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, which do not meet the statutory tests:

(b) Transactions not recognized as retail sales. (See §§779.314 through 779.329.) Dollar volume derived from the following is not made from sales or services which are recognized as retail in the industry:

(1) Contracts to build, maintain, or repair buildings or other structures, or sales of services involving performance of typical construction activity or any other work recognized as an activity of a contracting business rather than a function of a retail merchant;

(2) Sales of lumber and building materials in which the seller agrees to install them for the purchaser, where the installation is not limited to services that are merely incidental to the sale and delivery of such materials but includes a substantial amount of activity such as construction work which is not recognized as retail (for example, sale and installation of roofing, siding, or insulation). A sale of such materials which would otherwise be recognized as retail (contracts described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section are outside this category) may be so recognized notwithstanding the installation agreement, however, to the extent that the sales value of the materials is segregated and separately identified in the transaction;

(3) Sales in direct carload shipments; that is, where the materials are shipped direct in carload lots from the dealer's supplier to the dealer's customer;

(4) Sales of specialized goods (some examples are logs, ties, pulpwood, telephone poles, and pilings). Such specialized items are of the type which the general consuming public does not ordinarily have occasion to use (cf. §779.318 and Mitchell v. Raines, 238 F. 2d 186), and the sales of such items are not recognized as retail in the industry;

(5) Sales made pursuant to formal bid procedures, such as those utilized by the Federal, State, and local governments and their agencies, involving the issuance by the buyer of a formal invitation to bid on certain merchandise for delivery in accordance with prescribed terms and specifications.

(c) Sales for resale. (See §§779.330–779.336.) Examples of sales which cannot be counted toward the required 75 percent because they are for resale include:

(1) Sales of lumber and building materials sold to other dealers for resale in the same form;

(2) Sales to industrial concerns for resale in any altered form or as a part or ingredient of other goods;

(3) Sales to contractors or builders for use in the construction, repair, or maintenance of commercial or industrial structures or any other structures not specifically included in section 3(n) of the Act (Sucrs. de Mayal v. Mitchell, 280 F. 2d 477, certiorari denied 364 U.S. 902; and see Arnold v. Kanowsky, 361 U.S. 388, 394, footnote 10, and §§779.335–779.336);

(4) Transfers of goods by an employer, who is a dealer in lumber and building materials and who also acts in the capacity of a building contractor or speculative builder, from or through his building materials establishment to his building business for the construction maintenance, or repair of commercial property or any other property not excepted in section 3(n) of the Act. (See §779.336.)

§ 779.356   Application of exemptions to employees.
top

(a) Employees who may be exempt under sections 13(a)(2) and 13(a)(4). These exemptions apply on an establishment basis (see §§779.302–779.306). Accordingly, where an establishment of a dealer in lumber and building materials qualifies as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) or as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(4), as explained in §779.354, the exemption from the minimum wage and overtime pay requirements of the Act provided by such section will apply, subject to the limitations hereafter noted in this section, to all employees who are employed “by” such establishment (see §§779.307–779.311) in activities within the scope of its business (§779.308) and who are not employed by the employer in performing central office or warehouse work of an organization operating several such establishments (§779.310; McComb v. W. E. Wright Co., 168 F. 2d 40, cert. denied 335 U.S. 854). Neither exemption extends to employees employed in performing the work of a nonexempt establishment (§779.311) or such activities as construction work. Employees employed in making and processing of lumber and building materials for sale do not come within the section 13(a)(2) exemption; they are exempt only if employed by an establishment which qualifies as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(4) as explained in §779.354 and if their work in the making or processing of such materials is done at such establishment. How duties relating to the processing or manufacturing of such materials affect the application of these exemptions is discussed in further detail in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) Processing and manufacturing activities. The performance, in an establishment which sells lumber and building materials at retail, of activities such as cutting lumber to a smaller size or dressing lumber in accordance with a customer's request or assembling window and door frames received in “knocked-down” condition, constitutes processing incidental to the sales of such materials. Such activities are not considered manufacturing and will not affect the applicability of the section 13(a)(2) exemption to the establishment or to the employees who perform them. However, whenever lumber is cut or dressed for sale, or fabricated products are manufactured for sale (for example, windows, door frames, benches, pig troughs, pallets, molding, sashes, cabinets, boxes), there is no exemption under section 13(a)(2). Employees performing such manufacturing activities at the establishment are exempt only if all the tests set forth in section 13(a)(4) are met (see pars. (b), (c), and (d) of §779.354). Employees engaged in such activities at a manufacturing plant, central yard, or other place not qualifying as an exempt establishment under section 13(a) (2) and (4) are not exempt.

(c) Employees serving exempt and nonexempt operations. In lumber and building materials establishments which qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(2) but engage in some activities in which their employees are not exempt, such as construction or the making or processing of materials for sale where no exemption under section 13(a)(4) is applicable, there may be auxiliary employees of the establishment whose duties relate to both the exempt sales portion of the business and the non-exempt operations. For example, office workers may keep records of both the retail sales and construction or manufacturing activities; custodial workers may clean the entire premises, including portions devoted to nonexempt manufacturing; and warehousemen, messengers, and stock clerks may handle material for all departments, including material used in the nonexempt operations. These employees do not qualify for the exemption except when they are primarily engaged in the sales portion of the business and only incidentally perform clerical, custodial, or messenger service for the other operations. As an enforcement policy, such an employee will not be considered to be engaged in nonexempt activities which render him ineligible for exemption under section 13(a)(2) if, in the particular workweek, an insubstantial amount of his time (20 percent or less) is allocable to the clerical, custodial, or messenger services performed by him which relate to such nonexempt operations of the employer.

Coal Dealers
top
§ 779.357   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments; classification of coal sales.
top

(a) General. A coal dealer's establishment may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption. In determining for purposes of the 13(a)(2) exemption, whether 75 percent of the establishment's sales are recognized as retail in the particular industry, sales of coal to the consumer from a dealer's yard storage, where bulk is broken, are recognized as retail if they meet the requirements for such classification as previously explained in this subpart. It has been determined that the following sales do not meet such requirements and are not so recognized even if made from a dealer's yard storage:

(1) Sales where the delivery is made by railroad car or cargo vessel.

(2) Sales in a carload quantity or more for continuous delivery by truck from a dock, mine or public railroad facility.

(3) Sales of coal at a wholesale price. A wholesale price is a price comparable to or lower than the establishment's price in sales described in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section or in sales to dealers (but not peddlers) for resale. If the establishment makes no such sales, the wholesale price is the price comparable to or lower than the price prevailing in the immediate area in sales described in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section or in sales to dealers (but not peddlers) for resale.

(4) Sales of coal for use in the production of a specific product to be sold in which coal is an essential ingredient or the principal raw material, such as sales of coal for the production of coke, coal gas, coal tar, or electricity.

(b) “Sales for resale.” In determining for purposes of the 13(a)(2) exemption, whether 75 percent of the establishment's sales are not made for resale, “sales for resale” will include sales of coal to other dealers, to peddlers, and sales of coal for use in the production of a specific product to be sold, in which coal is an essential ingredient or the principal raw material, such as sales of coal for the production of coke, coal gas, coal tar, or electricity. This is distinguished from sales of coal for use in the general manufacturing or industrial process such as the use in laundries, bakeries, nurseries, canneries, etc., or for space heating, which are not sales made for resale.

Ice Manufacturers and Ice Dealers
top
§ 779.358   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.
top

(a) An establishment engaged in selling ice may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption. Similarly, an establishment making the ice it sells may qualify as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(4) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption.

(b) In determining whether the requirements of the 13(a)(2) exemption that 75 percent of the establishment's sales must not be made for resale and must be recognized as retail sales in the industry are met, sales of ice which meet all the requirements for such classification as previously explained in this subpart will be regarded as retail. The following sales have been determined not to qualify under the applicable tests for recognition as retail:

(1) Sales for resale.

(2) Sales of ice for icing railroad cars and for icing cargo trucks. However, sales of ice for the re-icing of cargo trucks are recognized as retail if such sales do not fall into the nonretail categories described in paragraphs (b) (4) and (5) of this section.

(3) Sales of ice in railroad car lots.

(4) Sales of ice of a ton or more.

(5) Sales of ice at a price comparable to that charged by the establishment to dealers or, if no sales are made to dealers by the establishment, at a price comparable to or lower than the prevailing price to dealers in the area.

(c) The legislative history indicates that iceplants making the ice they sell are among the establishments which may qualify as retail establishments under the section 13(a)(4) exemption. It appears that all iceplants which sell at retail are establishments of the same general type, permitting no separate classifications with respect to recognition as retail establishments. Any iceplant which meets the tests of section 13(a)(2) will, therefore, be considered to be recognized as a retail establishment in the industry. Of course, the establishment must also meet all the other tests of section 13(a)(4) to qualify for the exemption.

(d) There are some iceplants which meet the section 13(a)(2) exemption requirements, but do not meet all of the section 13(a)(4) requirements. In such establishments, there may be some employees whose duties relate to both the sales portion of the business and the making or processing of ice. These employees will not qualify for exemption. However, in such establishment, there may be some employees who work primarily for the retail sales portion of the business and also perform incidental clerical, custodial, or messenger service for the manufacturing operation. For example, office workers may keep records of both the manufacturing activities and of the retail sales departments, maintenance workers may clean up in both parts of the establishment, and messengers may perform services for both activities. If these employees spend relatively little time in the work related to the ice manufacturing portion of the business, they will not, as an enforcement policy, be regarded as engaged in the making or processing of ice. Such an auxiliary employee will thus be exempt under section 13(a)(2) in any workweek in which an insubstantial amount of his time (20 percent or less) is allocable to the clerical, messenger, or custodial work of the ice manufacturing operations.

Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers
top
§ 779.359   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.
top

A liquefied-petroleum-gas or fuel oil dealer's establishment may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption. (It should be noted, however, that employees of certain enterprises engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products may be partially exempt from the overtime provisions of the Act under section 7(b)(3). This overtime exemption is discussed in a separate bulletin, part 794 of this chapter. Liquefied-petroleum-gas means butane, propane and mixtures of butane and propane gases.

§ 779.360   Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.
top

(a) General. In determining, under the 13(a)(2) exemption, whether 75 percent of the establishment's sales are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, sales to the ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to the customer's storage tanks, are recognized as retail in the industry if they meet all the requirements for such classification as previously explained in this subpart. The following are not recognized as retail:

(1) Sales in single lot deliveries exceeding 1,000 gallons;

(2) Sales made on a competitive bid basis (this term covers sales made pursuant to an invitation to bid, particularly sales to Federal, State and local governments; sales made in a like manner to commercial and industrial concerns and institutions are also included); and

(3) Sales for use in the production of a specific product in which the gas is an essential ingredient or principal raw material, such as sales of liquefied-petroleum-gas for the production of chemicals and synthetic rubber; and

(4) Sales of liquefied-petroleum-gas for use as truck or bus fuel and the repair and servicing of trucks and buses used in over-the-road commercial transportation (including parts and accessories for such vehicles).

(b) Sales or repairs of tanks. Sales or repairs of tanks for the storage of liquefied-petroleum-gas are recognized as retail in the industry, except: (1) Any tank exceeding 1,000 gallons in capacity; (2) any tank sold or repaired on the basis described in paragraph (a) (2) of this section or for the purposes described in paragraph (a)(3) of this section; and (3) sales in quantity larger than involved in the ordinary sales to a farm or household customer.

(c) Conversion units. Sales and installation of units for converting pumps, stoves, furnaces and other equipment and appliances to the use of liquefied-petroleum-gas, are recognized as retail sales except: (1) Sales of the installation of such conversion units which involve substantial modification of the appliance or equipment; (2) sales and installation of such units to be used in industrial machinery or equipment; (3) sales and installations made on the basis described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section or in quantity as described in §779.327; and (4) sales and installation of such units for vehicles mentioned in paragraph (a) (4) of this section.

§ 779.361   Classification of other fuel oil sales.
top

(a) Sales of fuel oil (as differentiated from sales of butane and propane gases) are classified as retail and nonretail sales as follows:

(1) Retail sales—all sales of grades No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 of fuel oil direct to housholders for their own domestic uses;

(2) Nonretail sales:

(i) All sales of grades No. 4, No. 5, and No. 6 fuel oil as these heavy oils are “special purpose” goods to which the retail sales concept has no application (See §779.321);

(ii) All sales for resale including such sales to peddlers and other dealers (See §§779.331–779.334);

(iii) All sales made pursuant to a formal invitation to bid (See §779.328(d)).

(b) In some cases the retail or nonretail status of an establishment may turn on sales other than those listed above. In such cases all the facts relative to such sales shall be considered in arriving at a determination. The classification of such sales depends upon whether they are recognized as retail sales. In such cases particular attention shall be given to the quantities involved and the prices charged.

Feed Dealers
top
§ 779.362   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.
top

(a) An establishment engaged in selling feed may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption. Similarly an establishment making and processing the feed it sells may qualify as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(4) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption.

(b) In determining whether, under the 13(a)(2) exemption, 75 percent of the establishment's sales are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, sales of feed to feeders will generally meet the requirements for such classification as previously explained in this subpart and will ordinarily be considered to be retail sales except for the following which do not meet the requirements and are not recognized as retail: Any sale of feed for shipment by railcar direct to the feeder; and sales made at a quantity discount which results in a price comparable to or lower than the establishment's price to dealers for resale or, if the establishment makes no sales to other dealers, at a price comparable to or lower than the price prevailing in the immediate area in sales by similar establishments to dealers for resale.

(c) The custom grinding and mixing of feed (including the addition of supplements) for feeders from the grain they themselves bring in will be regarded as the performance of a service, and not the making or processing of goods for sale under section 13(a)(4). Such services are recognized as retail services in the industry and the revenue derived therefrom will be included with the retail receipts of the establishment.

(d) Employees employed in the grinding and mixing of feed for sale (as distinguished from the grinding and mixing services discussed in paragraph (c) of this section) are engaged in the making or processing of goods and are therefore not exempt under section 13(a)(2). In order for these employees to be exempt, the establishment by which they are employed must meet all the requirements of section 13(a)(4), including the requirement that the establishment must be recognized as a retail establishment in the particular industry. The typical small feed mill engaged in selling goods to farmers appears to be recognized as retail in the industry. There are, of course, large mills which are essentially factories which are not so recognized. As an enforcement policy an establishment which qualifies for exemption under section 13(a)(2) will be considered to have met this requirement: (1) If less than 50 percent of its retail sales are composed of feed manufactured at the establishment; or (2) if its sales of feeds manufactured at the establishment do not exceed 2,000 tons a year. In determining these tests for the applicability of the exemption, the computation of the sales of feed manufactured will be made on an annual basis in the same manner as set forth in §§779.265 through 779.269 for the computation of sales.

Monument Dealers
top
§ 779.363   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.
top

(a) An establishment engaged in the sale of monuments and memorials may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption. Similarly, an establishment making or processing the monuments it sells may qualify as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(4) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption.

(b) Monument dealers' establishments may be roughly divided into four types;

(1) Establishments which are engaged exclusively in selling monuments and memorials from designs. They receive their monuments from a manufacturer completely finished and lettered and they then erect the monuments.

(2) Establishments which purchase finished monuments from manufacturers, display them, carve or sand-blast lettering or incidental decoration to order, and set them in cemeteries or elsewhere.

(3) Establishments which purchase finished and semi-finished work. The semifinished work consists of sawed, steeled, or polished granite slabs or sand-rubbed marble. In such a case the establishments will cut ends, tops, or joints on dies and may shape a base.

(4) Establishments which purchase stone in rough form and perform all the fabricating operations in their own plants. In such a case the establishments may saw or line-up the rough stones, machine surface and polish the stone and then perform the other operations necessary to complete the monument. They may finish the monuments for display or on special order and then erect them.

(c) In determining whether, under the 13(a)(2) exemption, 75 percent of the establishment's sales are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, the ordinary sale of a single tombstone or monument to the ultimate purchaser will be considered as a retail sale within the meaning of the exemption. If the monument dealer establishment meets all the tests of the 13(a)(2) exemption all employees employed by it will be exempt under that exemption except those employees who are engaged in the making or processing of the goods. However, carving or sandblasting of lettering or incidental decoration or erecting the monuments, is considered processing incidental to the making of retail sales and would not defeat the 13(a)(2) exemption for employees performing such work. Employees who engage in processing semifinished or rough granite or marble or other stone into finished monuments such as the work performed in establishments described in paragraphs (b) (3) and (4) of this section are engaged in the making or processing of goods and are, for that reason, not exempt under section 13(a)(2). In order for those employees to be exempt the establishment by which they are employed must meet all the requirements of the 13(a)(4) exemption.

(d) One of the requirements of the section 13(a)(4) exemption is that an establishment which makes or processes goods must be recognized as a retail establishment in the industry. Generally an establishment described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section which receives finished stock and in addition receives some semifinished work, including sawed, steeled, or polished granite slabs or sand-rubbed marble, etc., and performs such operations as cutting ends, tops, or joints on the dies, is a type of establishment which is recognized as a retail establishment in the industry. On the other hand, those establishments which characteristically engage in the sawing or lining up of rough stone, or in the machine surfacing and polishing of stone, such as the activities performed in an establishment described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, are not recognized as retail establishments in the particular industry within the meaning of section 13(a)(4). Therefore, their employees who engage in such processing of monuments are not exempt under this section of the Act.

Frozen-Food Locker Plants
top
§ 779.364   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.
top

(a) An establishment engaged in providing frozen-food locker service to farmers and other private individuals and rendering services thereto may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption. Similarly, a frozen-food locker plant which also engages in slaughtering and dressing livestock or poultry for sale may qualify as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(4) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption.

(b) Activities of frozen-food locker plants. Frozen-food locker plants provide locker service for the cold storage of frozen meats, fruits, and vegetables and engage in incidental activities such as the cutting of meat, cleaning, packaging or wrapping and quick freezing, of meats, fruits, or vegetables for such locker service. In such establishments lockers are rented principally to farmers and other private individuals for the purpose of storage by them of such goods for their own personal or family use. Storage space and related services may also be provided for business or commercial use such as to hotels, stores or restaurants, or to farmers or other customers who use it to store meat and other goods for future sale. Such locker plants may also engage in such activities as the custom slaughtering and dressing of livestock or poultry and the curing, smoking, or other processing of meat owned by farmers and other private individuals for storage by those customers either in their home freezers or in locker plants for the customers' personal or family use. The custom slaughtering or processing activities of such locker establishments may be performed on the premises of the establishments or at some location away from the establishment.

(c) Classification of sales. In determining whether, under the 13(a)(2) exemption, 75 percent of the establishment's sales are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, the receipts from the locker service and the incidental activities mentioned in the first sentence of this section and from the slaughtering, dressing, or other processing of livestock or poultry performed for farmers and other private individuals for their own use, but not where the goods are to be sold to others by the customer, will be counted as receipts from sales of services recognized as retail in the industry. Receipts from commercial storage and activities incidental thereto and from the sale of hides, offal or other byproducts will be counted as receipts from sales of goods or services made for resale or which are not recognized as retail sales of goods or services in the industry.

(d) Some locker plant establishments also include a meat market of the type which slaughters its own livestock or poultry (as distinguished from the slaughtering performed as a service to customers on the customers' own livestock) and processes such meat for sale by it to the general public. In performing such operations as the slaughtering, curing, and smoking of meat and the rendering of fats for sale, the establishment is making or processing goods that it sells and is not performing retail services for its customers. Employees engaged in these activities in such an establishment, therefore, are not exempt under section 13(a)(2) but may be exempt if the establishment meets the tests of a combination 13(a)(2)–13(a)(4) exemption in accordance with the principles stated in §779.343. As a general rule, such a meat market which slaughters its own livestock and sells its meat to the general public is a type of establishment which may be recognized as a retail establishment in the industry within the meaning of the 13(a)(4) exemption. Whether a particular establishment, however, is so recognized depends upon the facts of the case. It should be noted that where such slaughtering, curing or smoking is, for any reason, performed away from the premises of the establishment where the meat is sold, the employees engaged in such activities are not employees employed by a retail establishment which “makes or processes at the retail establishment the goods that it sells” within the meaning of the 13(a)(4) exemption and cannot, therefore, be exempt under that section.

Automotive Tire Establishments
top
§ 779.365   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) or 13(a)(4) establishments.
top

(a) An establishment engaged in the selling of tires, tubes, accessories and of repair services on tires may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption. Similarly, an establishment engaged in retreading or recapping tires may qualify as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(4) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption.

(b)(1) In determining whether, under the 13(a)(2) exemption, 75 percent of the establishment's sales are not made for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, sales other than those described hereinafter in the subparagraphs of this paragraph may be so counted if they meet all the requirements for such classification as previously explained in this subpart. Not eligible for inclusion in the requisite 75 percent are sales of goods that cannot be the subject of a retail sale because the goods are not of a “retailable” type or the sales of such goods lack the “retail concept” (see §779.321). Nor can sales for resale be counted toward the 75 percent. For example, sales of tires, tubes, accessories or services to garages, service stations, repair shops, tire dealers and automobile dealers, to be sold or to be used in reconditioning vehicles for sale are sales for resale. Further, the sales of tires, tubes, accessories and tire repair services, including retreading and recapping, which are described in the following paragraphs (b) (2) through (7), are not recognized as retail in the industry.

(2) Sales made pursuant to a formal invitation to bid: Such sales are made under a procedure involving the issuance by the buyer of a formal invitation to bid on certain merchandise for delivery in accordance with prescribed terms and specifications. Sales to the Federal, State and local governments are typically made in this manner.

(3) Sales to “national accounts” as known in the trades; that is, sales where delivery is made by the local tire dealer under a centralized pricing arrangement between the customer's national office and the tire manufacturer; payment may be made either to the local dealer or direct to the tire manufacturer under a centralized billing arrangement with the customer's national office.

(4) Sales to fleet accounts at wholesale prices: As used in this section, a “fleet account” is a customer operating five or more automobiles or trucks for business purposes. Wholesale prices for tires, tubes, and accessories are prices equivalent to, or less than, those typically charged on sales for resale. If the establishment makes no sales of passenger car tires for resale, the wholesale price of such tires will be taken to be the price typically charged in the area on sales of passenger car tires for resale. If the establishment makes no sales of truck tires for resale, the wholesale price of such tires will be taken to be the price charged by the establishment on sales of truck tires to fleet accounts operating 10 or more commercial vehicles, or if the establishment makes no such sales, the wholesale price will be taken to be the price typically charged in the area on sales of truck tires to fleet accounts operating 10 or more commercial vehicles. (See Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire, 383 U.S. 190, 202, rehearing denied 383 U.S. 963.)

(5) Sales of a tire rental service on a mileage basis known in the trade as “mileage contracts”: This is a leasing arrangement under which a tire dealer agrees to provide and maintain tires or tubes for motor vehicles of a fleet account.

(6) Sales of servicing and repair work performed under a fleet maintenance arrangement on tires for trucks and other automotive vehicles whereby the establishment undertakes to maintain the tires or tubes for a fleet account at a price below the prevailing retail price.

(7) Sales, repair, recapping, or rental of truck or machinery tires suitable for use only on trucks or equipment of a specialized kind that cannot themselves be the subject of a retail sale because their lack of a concept of “retailability” as previously explained precludes the recognition of their sale as “retail;” to any industry.

§ 779.366   Recapping or retreading tires for sale.
top

(a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the establishment expects to sell in their reconditioned form. Such activities are not performed as a service for a customer but constitute manufacturing goods for sale. Employees performing such work may be exempt only if they are employed by an establishment which meets all the requirements of the 13(a)(4) exemption.

(b) For purposes of meeting the retail recognition requirement of section 13(a)(4), an establishment engaged in retreading or recapping of tires which qualifies for exemption under section 13(a)(2) is recognized as a retail establishment in the industry if not more than 50 percent of the annual dollar volume of its sales resulting from its retreading and recapping operations comes from the sale of tires retreaded and recapped for sale.

Commercial Stationers
top
§ 779.367   Commercial stationers may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.
top

(a) A commercial stationer's establishment may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that exemption. Where the establishment meets these requirements all employees employed by the establishment will be exempt, except any employees who are engaged in the making or processing of goods, such as printing and engraving. The commercial stationer ordinarily has a store on the street level located in the shopping section of the community where other stores are located and many people pass by. He has store clerks who sell over the counter to the consuming public and may have outside salesmen who sell to offices. He makes very few, if any, sales to other dealers for resale. He keeps in stock and displays the various items sold over the counter and by outside salesmen. The number of items in stock typically ranges from 5,000 to 15,000. Primarily, items sold are stationery, pens, pencils, blotters, briefcases, calendars, clocks, greeting cards, thumbtacks, typewriter ribbons, carbon paper, paper clips, ink, commercial envelopes and typewriter paper, filing supplies and similar items. In addition he may also sell filing cabinets, office desks and chairs, other items of office furniture and supplies and equipment generally, as well as standard and portable typewriters and certain other small office machines.

(b) In determining whether, under the 13(a)(2) exemption, 75 percent of the establishment's sales are recognized as retail sales, in the case of commercial stationery establishments which in general operate as described in §779.367(a), the sales made which are of “Retailable” items and are not for resale will be recognized as retail if they meet the requirements for such classification as previously explained in this subpart. The following position is adopted for enforcement purposes: All sales other than for resale of stationery, office supplies and equipment, office furniture and office machinery commonly stocked by commercial stationers for sale to individual consumers as well as businesses, including typewriters, adding machines, small duplicating machines, checkwriters, and the like, will be considered to be retail except for the sales set out below:

(1) Sales made on a competitive bid basis. This term covers sales made pursuant to an invitation to bid, particularly sales to Federal, State, and local governments; sales made in a like manner to commercial and industrial concerns and institutions are also included.

(2) Sales made pursuant to a requirements contract or other contractual arrangement involving the sale of a large quantity of goods over a period of time with a substantially lower price structure for the individual deliveries than would prevail for the usual sales of the quantities delivered.

(3) Sales made at quantity discount of 30 percent or more from the price of the ordinary unit of sale.

(4) Sales of school supplies to municipalities, boards of education, or schools in the same manner as the sales of school supply distributors.

(5) Sales of job printing and engraving other than (i) sales of social printing and engraving and (ii) sales of printing and engraving of business envelopes, letterheads, and calling cards.

(6) Sales of specialized machinery and equipment.

§ 779.368   Printing and engraving establishments not recognized as retail.
top

(a) An establishment which is engaged in printing and engraving is not recognized as a retail establishment for purposes of section 13(a)(4). Therefore, employees of a stationery establishment engaged in printing and/or engraving do not come within the exemption. This fact will not affect the exemption under section 13(a)(2) of employees of stationery establishments who are not engaged in printing or engraving.

(b) In a combined stationery and printing or engraving establishment there are employees who operate the machines in the printing or engraving department and there may be other employees who also perform work primarily or exclusively for that department. There are in addition various employees in such combined establishments whose work relates to the stationery portion of the business but who also perform some work for the printing department. For example, office workers may keep records of both the printing plant and stationery department, maintenance workers may clean up in both departments; and warehousemen, messengers and stock clerks may handle material for both departments. In some establishments these workers spend relatively little time in the work of the printing department. As an enforcement policy an auxiliary employee will not be considered to be engaged in the making or processing of goods for purposes of the exemption under section 13(a)(2) in any workweek in which an insubstantial amount of his time (20 percent or less) is allocable to the clerical, messenger, or custodial work of the printing department.

Funeral Homes
top
§ 779.369   Funeral home establishments may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.
top

(a) General. A funeral home establishment may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that section. Where the establishment meets these requirements generally all employees employed by the establishment will be exempt except any employees who perform any work in connection with burial insurance operations (see paragraph (b)) or who spend a substantial portion of their workweek in ambulance service operations, as described in paragraph (e) below.

(b) Burial insurance operations. There is no retail concept applicable to the insurance business (see §779.317). Burial associations which enter into burial insurance contracts are generally regulated by the State and the regulations governing such associations are included in State statutes under Insurance. The contracts issued are very similar in form and content to ordinary life insurance policies. Income received from such operations is nonretail income and employees engaged in such work are not employed in work within the scope of the retail exemption (see §779.308).

(c) Accommodation items. Amounts paid to funeral homes to cover the cost of “accommodation” items are part of the gross receipts of the establishment and are included in its annual gross volume of sales made or business done. Such items may include goods or services procured by the funeral home on behalf of the bereaved with or without profit but on its own credit or through cash payment by it, such as telegrams, long distance calls, newspaper notices, flowers, livery service, honoraria to participating personnel, transportation by common carrier, clothing for the deceased, and transcripts of necessary forms. For the purposes of determining the applicability of the retail or service establishment exemption, receipts of the funeral home in reimbursement for such services are considered derived from sales or services recognized as retail in the industry. Cash advances made as a convenience to a bereaved family are not included in computing the gross volume of sales made of business done when repaid. Of course, if interest is charged it would be included in the gross volume of sales and nonretail income.

(d) Nonretail services. Calling for and preparing bodies and crematory service for other funeral homes, burial insurance operations, and ambulance or livery transportation service (as distinguished from the use of ambulances or other vehicles as a necessary part of the undertaking, funeral, or burial services of the establishment), are some examples of a funeral home providing goods or services which will be “resold” or which are not recognized as retail.

(e) Ambulance service. The typical ambulance service establishment, engaged exclusively or nearly so in providing a specialized form of transportation for sick, injured, aged, or handicapped persons, is a part or branch of the transportation industry. Since there is no traditional retail concept in the transportation industry, such ambulance service establishments cannot qualify for the section 13(a)(2) exemption (see §779.317). Income from the same typical ambulance services would be considered nonretail in applying the 25 percent tolerance for nonretail income in a funeral home. If an establishment engaged in a combination of funeral home and ambulance services meets all the tests for exemption under section 13(a)(2), as applied to the combined sales of both types of services, those of its employees who are engaged in the funeral home's activities and functions will be exempt as employees of a retail or service establishment. This exemption, however, does not apply to any employee regularly engaged in nonexempt ambulance transportation activities in any workweek when he devotes a substantial amount of his working time to such nonexempt work. More than 20 percent of the employee's working time in the workweek will, for enforcement purposes, be considered substantial.

(f) Out-of-State sales. An arrangement with a funeral home to embalm and ship human remains to a point outside the State for burial is not a sale within the State. The reverse situation where an out-of-State funeral director ships the remains to a funeral home to arrange for local interment also is not a sale within the State.

(g) Work for more than one establishment. Employees performing central office, supply, or warehouse functions for more than one funeral home establishment are not within the exemption (see §779.310). However, where certain mortuaries may operate more than one exempt establishment and where employees such as embalmers employed by an exempt funeral home may be called upon in a given workweek to perform for another exempt establishment or establishments in the same enterprise work which is a part of the funeral home services sold by that establishment or establishments to customers, such employees do not lose the exemption where at all times during the workweek the employee is employed by one or the other of such exempt establishments either inside or outside the establishment in the activities within the scope of its own exempt business (see §779.311(b)). In addition, where an establishment offering complete funeral home services also has outlying chapels where only the funeral services of the deceased persons are conducted, employees of the main establishment who are otherwise exempt do not lose the exemption by virtue of the activities which they may perform in connection with the funeral services held at the chapel. These activities are in such a case part of their employment by the exempt main establishment.

Cemeteries
top
§ 779.370   Cemeteries may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.
top

(a) General. A cemetery may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if it meets all the requirements of that section, including the requirement that the retail or service establishment be open to the general public. So long as a cemetery is open to any persons of a particular religion rather than merely the members of a specific organization or place of worship, it will be considered for enforcement purposes to be “open to the general public.”

(b) Annual dollar volume. As used in the Act, annual gross volume means the gross receipts from all the business activities of the establishment during a 12-month period (see §§779.265 through 779.269). Sums received from the following types of transactions are part of the annual gross volume of sales made or business done:

(1) Sales of lots or plots.

(2) Annual tax or assessment levied on lot owners, and

(3) Gifts or bequests.

Interest from any trust funds for permanent or current maintenance is also included in the annual gross volume of sales made or business done. The allocation of the gross receipts to any trust funds or other accounts of the establishment does not affect the annual gross volume.

(c) Nonretail sales or income. Sales of lots or plots to a burial society or a fraternal organization for the use of the members are sales for resale and as such may not be counted as part of the 75 percent of annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services which is not for resale and recognized as retail in the industry under section 13(a)(2). Such sales are counted as part of the annual gross volume in the period in which the transaction between the cemetery and the burial society or fraternal organization is completed. Any interest from trust funds or other investments also is not recognized as retail receipts under section 13(a)(2).

Automobile, Truck and Farm Implement Sales and Services, and Trailer, Boat and Aircraft Sales
top
§ 779.371   Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(2).
top

(a) General. The specific exemption from the provisions of sections 6 and 7 of the Act that was provided in section 13(a)(19) prior to the 1966 amendments for employees of a retail or service establishment which is primarily engaged in the business of selling automobiles, trucks, or farm implements was repealed. However, some such establishments may qualify for exemption from both the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions of the Act under section 13(a)(2) as retail or service establishments. These are establishments whose annual dollar volume is smaller than the amount specified in section 13(a)(2) or in section 3(s)(1) and which meet all the other requirements of section 13(a)(2) (see §779.337). (Such establishments which do not qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(2) may have certain employees who are exempt only from the overtime pay provisions of the Act under section 13(b)(10). Section 13(b)(10) is applicable not only to automobile, truck, and farm implement dealers but also to dealers in trailers, boats, and aircraft. The section 13(b)(10) exemption is discussed in §779.372 below.)

(b) Application of the 75-percent test. In determining whether, under the section 13(a)(2) exemption, 75 percent of an automobile, truck, or farm implement establishment's sales of goods or services are not for resale and are recognized as retail, the requirements for such classification, including the existence of a retail concept, as explained previously in this subpart, and the specific applications in the industry of these requirements in accordance with the following principles, will govern the classification of sales made by such establishments. The sales of goods or services described in paragraph (c) of this section and in paragraphs (e)(1) through (5) of this section may not be counted toward the required 75 percent. Such sales do not qualify as retail because they either are for resale, are outside the retail concept, or have been determined to lack the requisite recognition as retail sales or services. Other sales of goods or services by the dealer can qualify if they meet the requirements previously explained.

(c) Nonretail automobile and truck sales and servicing. None of the following sales of automobiles, trucks, automotive parts, accessories, servicing and repair work will be considered as retail:

(1) Sales for resale. For example, sales of new or used automobiles and trucks, tires, accessories or services, to service stations, repair shops and automobile or truck dealers, where these establishments resell the various items or where they use them in repairing customers' vehicles or in reconditioning used cars for resale, are sales for resale. (Note that a “sale” for purposes of the Act need not be for profit under section 3(k) it includes any “exchange  *  *  * or other disposition”.) However, internal transfers of such items between departments within the dealer's establishment, such as transfers of parts from the parts department to the service department of an automobile dealer's establishment, will not be considered sales for resale. Such transfers from one department to another will be disregarded in computing the establishment's sales for determining the applicability of this exemption.

(2) Sales made pursuant to a formal invitation to bid. Such sales are made under a procedure involving the issuance by the buyer of a formal invitation to bid on certain merchandise for delivery in accordance with prescribed terms and specifications. Sales to the Federal, State, and local governments are typically made in this manner.

(3) Fleet sales. Sales in a fleet quantity for business purposes (a sale of five or more cars or trucks at a time, for example); and sales to fleet accounts as described in paragraphs (c)(3) (i) and (ii) of this section. (As here used, a “fleet account” is a customer operating five or more automobiles or trucks for business purposes.)

(i) Automobiles and trucks. Sales and term leases of automobiles and trucks to national fleet accounts as designated by the various automotive manufacturers, at fleet discounts, and sales and term leases to other fleet accounts at discounts equivalent to those provided in sales to national fleet owners are not recognized as retail.

(ii) Automotive parts and accessories. Sales of parts and accessories to fleet accounts at wholesale prices are not recognized as retail. Wholesale prices are prices equivalent to, or less than, those typically charged on sales for resale.

(4) Sales and term leases of specialized heavy motor vehicles or bodies (16,000 pounds and over gross vehicle weight) and of tires, parts, and accessories designed for use on such specialized equipment. The following is a partial list illustrating the types of items of equipment not considered to qualify as subjects of retail sale:

(i) Single unit trucks, including:

Armored (money carrying).

Buses (integral).

Coal.

Drilling.

Dump.

Hook and ladder (fire department).

Chemical wagons (fire department).

Garbage.

Mixer.

Refrigerator.

Special public utility.

Steel haulers.

Street-cleaning.

Tank.

Wrecker.

(ii) Full trailers and semitrailers (tractors and semitrailer and truck and trailer combinations), including:

Auto carrier.

Coal.

Dump.

Garbage.

House carrier.

Low bed carry all.

Pole (lumber).

Refrigerator.

Tank.

Van.

(5) Sales of servicing and repair work peculiar to the servicing and repair of specialized vehicles referred to in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, or performed under a fleet maintenance arrangement on trucks and other automotive vehicles whereby the establishment undertakes to maintain a customer's fleet at a price below the prevailing retail prices.

(6) Sales to motor carriers of services, fuel, equipment, or other goods or facilities by establishments commonly referred to as truck stops. Such establishments, which are physically laid out and specially equipped to meet the highway needs of the motor transportation industry, offer a variety of services to truckers on a “one-stop” basis, and provide services principally to motor carriers and their crews. They are an integral part of the interstate transportation industry and are not within the traditional retail establishments (see paragraphs (c) (4) and (5) of this section).

(7) Sales of diesel fuel (and LP gas) for use as truck or bus fuel and the repair and servicing of trucks and buses used in over-the-road commercial transportation (including parts and accessories for such vehicles) are specialized goods and services “which can never be sold at retail  *  *  * whatever the terms of the sale.” ( Idaho Sheet Metal Works, Inc. v. Wirtz, 383 U.S. 190, 202, rehearing denied 383 U.S. 963; Wirtz v. Steepleton General Tire Company, Inc., 383 U.S. 190, 202, rehearing denied 383 U.S. 963.) Sales of these items are nonretail whether made by truck stops or other establishments (see paragraphs (c) (4) and (5) of this section).

(d) Nonspecialized truck parts, accessories and services. Sales of parts and accessories which are of the type used by small trucks engaged in local transportation or by farm vehicles and are not nonretail under paragraph (c)(6) of this section will be tested under paragraphs (b) and (c)(3) (ii) of this section, even when made on occasion for use in larger vehicles. Likewise, repairs and servicing of a minor nature (such as tire repair, battery recharging, cleaning of fuel lines, or minor electrical rewiring) performed on any type vehicle will be considered retail in nature unless nonretail under paragraph (c)(6) of this section or unless a fleet maintenance arrangement as in paragraph (c)(5) of this section is present.

(e) Farm implement sales. Sales of farm machinery, such as equipment necessary for plowing, planting, thinning, weeding, fertilizing, irrigating, and harvesting of crops, and raising of livestock on the farm, and the repair work thereon, will be considered as retail (whether sold to farmers or nonfarmers) when they satisfy the tests referred to in paragraph (b) of this section. The following, which fail to satisfy these tests, must be classified as nonretail:

(1) Sales for resale. For example, sales of new or used machinery, parts, accessories or services to service stations, repair shops and other dealers, where these establishments resell these items or where they use them in repairing customers' farm implements or in reconditioning used farm implements for resale, are sales for resale. However, this does not apply to internal transfers of such items between departments within the dealer's establishment. Transfers of parts from the parts department to the service department of a farm implement dealer's establishment will not be considered sales for resale, and will be disregarded in computing the establishment's sales for determining the applicability of the section 13(a)(2) exemption.

(2) Sales made pursuant to formal invitation to bid. Such sales are made under a procedure involving the issuance by the buyer of a formal invitation to bid on certain merchandise for delivery in accordance with prescribed terms and specifications. Sales to Federal, State and local governments are typically made in this manner.

(3) Sales of specialized equipment not ordinarily used by farmers, such as:

Bulldozers.

Scrapers.

Land levelers.

Graders.

Cotton ginning machinery.

Canning and packing equipment.

(4) Sales of junk.

(5) Sales of machinery or equipment which are sold “installed”, where the installation involves construction work. Installations which require extensive planning, labor and use of specialized equipment ordinarily constitute construction work. In such cases the cost of installation ordinarily is substantial in relation to the cost of the goods installed.

(f) Quantity sales to farmers. It should be noted that the concept of fleet sales discussed in paragraphs (c)(3) and (5) of this section is not applied to sales to farmers, even though the farmer uses five or more vehicles on his farm.

(g) Particular activities which lack a retail concept. Any receipts derived from warehousing, construction, including water well drilling, or manufacturing activities performed by the automobile, truck, or farm implement dealer are not receipts from retail sales. These activities and the manufacturing of farm implements are not retail activities.

[35 FR 5856, Apr. 9, 1970, as amended at 76 FR 18858, Apr. 5, 2011]

§ 779.372   Nonmanufacturing establishments with certain exempt employees under section 13(b)(10).
top

(a) General. A specific exemption from only the overtime pay provisions of section 7 of the Act is provided in section 13(b)(10) for certain employees of nonmanufacturing establishments engaged in the business of selling automobiles, trucks, farm implements, trailers, boats, or aircraft. Section 13(b)(10)(A) states that the provisions of section 7 shall not apply with respect to “any salesman, partsman, or mechanic primarily engaged in selling or servicing automobiles, trucks, or farm implements, if he is employed by a nonmanufacturing establishment primarily engaged in the business of selling such vehicles or implements to ultimate purchasers.” Section 13(b)(10)(B) states that the provisions of section 7 shall not apply with respect to “any salesman primarily engaged in selling trailers, boats, or aircraft, if he is employed by a nonmanufacturing establishment primarily engaged in the business of selling trailers, boats, or aircraft to ultimate purchasers.” This exemption will apply irrespective of the annual dollar volume of sales of the establishment or of the enterprise of which it is a part.

(b) Character of establishment and employees exempted. (1) An establishment will qualify for this exemption if the following two tests are met:

(i) The establishment must not be engaged in manufacturing; and

(ii) The establishment must be primarily engaged in the business of selling automobiles, trucks, or farm implements to the ultimate purchaser for section 13(b)(10)(A) to apply. If these tests are met by an establishment the exemption will be available for salesmen, partsmen and mechanics, employed by the establishment, who are primarily engaged during the work week in the selling or servicing of the named items. Likewise, the establishment must be primarily engaged in the business of selling trailers, boats, or aircraft to the ultimate purchaser for the section 13(b)(10)(B) exemption to be available for salesmen employed by the establishment who are primarily engaged during the work week in selling these named items. An explanation of the term “employed by” is contained in §§779.307 through 779.311. The exemption is intended to apply to employment by such an establishment of the specified categories of employees even if they work in physically separate buildings or areas, or even if, though working in the principal building of the dealership, their work relates to the work of physically separate buildings or areas, so long as they are employed in a department which is functionally operated as part of the dealership.

(2) This exemption, unlike the former exemption in section 13(a)(19) of the Act prior to the 1966 amendments, is not limited to dealerships that qualify as retail or service establishments nor is it limited to establishments selling automobiles, trucks, and farm implements, but also includes dealers in trailers, boats, and aircraft.

(c) Salesman, partsman, or mechanic. (1) As used in section 13(b)(10)(A), a salesman is an employee who is employed for the purpose of and is primarily engaged in making sales or obtaining orders or contracts for sale of the automobiles, trucks, or farm implements that the establishment is primarily engaged in selling. As used in section 13(b)(10)(B), a salesman is an employee who is employed for the purpose of and is primarily engaged in making sales or obtaining orders or contracts for sale of trailers, boats, or aircraft that the establishment is primarily engaged in selling. Work performed incidental to and in conjunction with the employee's own sales or solicitations, including incidental deliveries and collections, is regarded as within the exemption.

(2) As used in section 13(b)(10)(A), a partsman is any employee employed for the purpose of and primarily engaged in requisitioning, stocking, and dispensing parts.

(3) As used in section 13(b)(10)(A), a mechanic is any employee primarily engaged in doing mechanical work (such as get ready mechanics, automotive, truck, or farm implement mechanics, used car reconditioning mechanics, and wrecker mechanics) in the servicing of an automobile, truck or farm implement for its use and operation as such. This includes mechanical work required for safe operation, as an automobile, truck, or farm implement. The term does not include employees primarily performing such nonmechanical work as washing, cleaning, painting, polishing, tire changing, installing seat covers, dispatching, lubricating, or other nonmechanical work. Wrecker mechanic means a service department mechanic who goes out on a tow or wrecking truck to perform mechanical servicing or repairing of a customer's vehicle away from the shop, or to bring the vehicle back to the shop for repair service. A tow or wrecker truck driver or helper who primarily performs nonmechanical repair work is not exempt.

(d) Primarily engaged. As used in section 13(b)(10), primarily engaged means the major part or over 50 percent of the salesman's, partsman's, or mechanic's time must be spent in selling or servicing the enumerated vehicles. As applied to the establishment, primarily engaged means that over half of the establishments annual dollar volume of sales made or business done must come from sales of the enumerated vehicles.

[35 FR 5856, Apr. 9, 1970, as amended at 38 FR 7549, Mar. 23, 1973; 76 FR 18858, Apr. 5, 2011]

Other Establishments for Which Special Exceptions or Exemptions Are Provided
top
§ 779.381   Establishments within special exceptions or exemptions.
top

(a) As stated in §779.338, the special exceptions provided in the 1961 amendments for hotels, motels, restaurants, hospitals, institutions for the sick, the aged, the mentally ill or defective, and schools for physically or mentally handicapped or gifted children have been removed. Seasonally operated amusement or recreational establishments and motion picture theaters also no longer are specifically exempt under section 13(a)(2), but have specific exemptions set out for them in sections 13(a)(3) and 13(a)(9) of the Act as amended in 1966.

(b) Hotels, motels, and restaurants continue to be eligible for exemption under section 13(a)(2), but must meet all the requirements of that section for exemption in the same manner as other retail or service establishments. However, a special overtime exemption is provided for such establishments, regardless of size, in the first part of section 13(b)(8). Hospitals, residential care establishments, and schools for physically or mentally handicapped or gifted children are specifically excluded by the Act from consideration for exemption under section 13(a)(2); however, residential care establishments are exempt from the overtime pay requirements of the Act under the second part of section 13(b)(8) as long as overtime premium of not less than one and one-half times the employee's regular rate of pay is paid to him for time worked in excess of 48 hours in the workweek. In addition, section 7(j) of the amended Act provides a special overtime arrangement for hospital employees whereby overtime pay is due an employee after 8 hours in a day or 80 hours in a 14-day work period rather than on the basis of the 7-day workweek as is normally required by the Act. This provision, though, requires an agreement or understanding on the part of both the employer and the employee prior to the performance of the work. See §778.601 of this chapter.

(c) The amendments of 1966 also repealed the exemption from both the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions which was in the Act for certain food service employees employed by retail or service establishments that were not exempt under section 13(a)(2). This exemption (formerly found in section 13(a)(20) is now an exemption from the overtime provisions only and is set out in section 13(b)(18). Those establishments now excluded by the Act from consideration for exemption under section 13(a)(2) (hospitals, residential care establishments, etc.) may utilize this exemption where they meet the Act's definition of retail or service establishment in the last sentence of section 13(a)(2) and the conditions set out in section 13(b)(18). Likewise, the special exemption for any employee of a retail or service establishment primarily engaged in the business of selling automobiles, trucks, or farm implements was repealed by the 1966 amendments. In its stead the overtime exemption set out in section 13(b)(10) and previously discussed in §779.372 was provided for certain employees of any nonmanufacturing establishment primarily engaged in the business of selling automobiles, trailers, trucks, farm implements, or aircraft to the ultimate consumer.

(d) A special exemption from the overtime pay requirements is also included in the amended Act for bowling establishments which do not meet the tests under section 13(a)(2) for exemption as a retail or service establishment. Section 13(b)(19) states that the overtime pay requirements of the Act shall not apply with respect to “any employee of a bowling establishment if such employee receives compensation for employment in excess of 48 hours in any workweek at a rate not less than one and one-half times the regular rate at which he is employed.” Unlike the overtime pay exemption in section 13(b)(18), this exemption is not dependent upon the establishment meeting the definition of retail or service establishment.

Hotels and Motels
top
§ 779.382   May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.
top

A hotel or motel establishment may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act. However, the establishment must meet all of the requirements of section 13(a)(2) (see §779.337). In determining whether an establishment is a retail or service establishment within the meaning of section 13(a)(2) the dollar volume received from the leasing or rental of space to other than transient members of the general public cannot be counted as derived from retail sales of goods or services. Therefore, receipts from tenants who are not transient guests (see §779.383(c)) must be included in the 25 percent tolerance provided for sales for resale or sales not recognized as retail.

§ 779.383   “Hotel” and “motel” exemptions under section 13(b)(8).
top

(a) General. A hotel or motel establishment may qualify for exemption from the Act's overtime pay requirements, even if it is in an enterprise described in section 3(s) and is not exempt under section 13(a)(2) because it exceeds the monetary test for exemption under that section. The first part of section 13(b)(8) provides that the overtime provisions of section 7 of the Act shall not apply with respect to “any employee employed by an establishment which is a hotel, motel  *  *  *.” The 13(b)(8) exemption is applicable irrespective of the annual dollar volume of sales of a hotel or motel establishment or of the enterprise of which it is a part.

(b) Definition of “hotel”. The term hotel as used in section 13(b)(8) means an establishment known to the public as a hotel, which is primarily engaged in providing lodging or lodging and meals for the general public. Included are hotels operated by membership organizations and open to the general public and apartment hotels which provide accommodations for transients. However, an establishment whose income is primarily from providing a permanent place of residence or from providing residential facilities complete with bedrooms and kitchen for leased periods longer than 3 months would not be considered a hotel within the meaning of the Act. An apartment or residential hotel is not considered a hotel for purposes of section 13(b)(8) unless more than half of its annual dollar volume is derived from providing transient guests representative of the general public with lodging or lodging and meals. (See paragraph (c) of this section.) Establishments in which lodging accommodations are not available to the public are not included. Also excluded from the category of hotels are rooming and boarding houses, and private residences commonly known as tourist homes. Resort or other hotels even if they operate seasonally are regarded as hotel. (See Cong. Rec., August 25, 1966, pages 19729–19732; Cong Rec., August 26, 1966, pages 19907–19911.)

(c) “Transient guests”. In determining who are “transient guests” within the meaning of §779.382 and paragraph (b) of this section, as a general rule the Department of Labor would consider as transient a guest who is free to come and go as he pleases and who does not sojourn in the establishment for a specified time or permanently. A transient is one who is entertained from day to day without any express contract or lease and whose stay is indefinite although to suit his convenience it may extend for several weeks or a season.

(d) Definition of “motel”. The term motel as used in section 13(b)(8) means an establishment which provides services similar to that of a “hotel” described in paragraph (b) of this section, but which caters mostly to the motoring public, providing it with motor car parking facilities either adjacent to the room or cabin rented or at some other easily accessible place. Included in the term “motel” are those establishments known to the public as motor hotels, motor lodges, motor courts, motor inns, tourist courts, tourist lodges and the like.

(e) Hotel and motel establishments engaged in other activities. The primary function of a hotel or motel is to provide lodging facilities to the public. In addition, most hotels or motels provide food for their guests and many sell alcoholic beverages. These establishments also may engage in some minor revenue producing activities; such as, the operation of valet services offering cleaning and laundering service for the garments of their guests, news stands, hobby shops, the renting out of their public rooms for meetings, lectures, dances, trade exhibits and weddings. The exception provided for “hotels” and “motels” in section 13(b)(8) will not be defeated simply because a “hotel” or a “motel” engages in all or some of these activities, if it is primarily engaged in providing lodging facilities, food and drink to the public.

Motion Picture Theaters
top
§ 779.384   May qualify as exempt establishments.
top

Section 13(a)(9) of the Act as amended in 1966 exempts from the minimum wage and overtime pay requirements “any employee employed by an establishment which is a motion picture theater.” This exemption will be applicable irrespective of the annual dollar volume of sales of such establishment or of the enterprise of which it is a part. A motion picture theater may also qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act if the establishment meets all requirements of the exemption, discussed above in §§779.337 to 779.341. The term “motion picture theater” as used in section 13(a)(9) means a commercially operated theater primarily engaged in the exhibition of motion pictures with or without vaudeville presentations. It includes “drive-in motion picture theaters” commonly known as “open air” or “drive-in” theaters, but does not include such incidental exhibition of motion pictures as those offered to passengers on aircraft. “Legitimate theaters” primarily engaged in exhibiting stage productions are not “motion picture theaters.”

Seasonal Amusement or Recreational Establishments
top
§ 779.385   May qualify as exempt establishments.
top

An amusement or recreational establishment operating on a seasonal basis may qualify as an exempt establishment under section 13(a)(3) of the Act, added by the 1966 amendments, even if it does not meet all the requirements of the 13(a)(2) exemption. Section 13(a)(3) exempts from the minimum wage and overtime pay requirements of the Act “any employee employed by an establishment which is an amusement or recreational establishment, if (a) it does not operate for more than seven months in any calendar year or (b) during the preceding calendar year, its average receipts for any 6 months of the year were not more than 33 1/3 percentum of its average receipts for the other 6 months of such year”. “Amusement or recreational establishments” as used in section 13(a)(3) are establishments frequented by the public for its amusement or recreation and which are open for 7 months or less a year or which meet the seasonal receipts test provided in clause (B) of the exemption. Typical examples of such are the concessionaires at amusement parks and beaches. (S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., first session, p. 28; H. Rept. 75, 87th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 10.)

Restaurants and Establishments Providing Food And Beverage Service
top
§ 779.386   Restaurants may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.
top

(a) A restaurant may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act. However, the establishment must meet all of the requirements of section 13(a)(2) (see §779.337). It should be noted that a separate exemption from the overtime pay provisions of the Act only is provided in section 13(b)(18) for certain food service employees employed by establishments other than restaurants if the establishment meets the definition of a retail or service establishment as defined in the last sentence of section 13(a)(2). Privately owned and operated restaurants conducted as separate and independent business establishments in industrial plants, office buildings, government installations, hospitals, or colleges, such as were involved in McComb v. Factory Stores, 81 F. Supp. 403 (N.D. Ohio) continue to be exempt under section 13(a)(2) where the tests of the exemption are met (S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., first session, p. 28; H. Rept. 75, 87th Cong., first session, p. 10). However, they would not be met if the food service is carried on as an activity of the larger, nonretail establishment in which the facility is located and there is no independent, separate and distinct place of business offering the restaurant service to individual customers from the general public, who purchase the meals selected by them directly from the establishment which serves them. An establishment serving meals to individuals, pursuant to a contract with an organization or person paying for such meals because the latter has assumed a contractual obligation to furnish them to the individuals concerned, is selling to such organization or firm, and the sales are for resale within the meaning of section 13(a)(2). See also §779.387.

§ 779.387   “Restaurant” exemption under section 13(b) (8).
top

(a) As amended in 1966, the Act, in section 13(b) (8), exempts from its overtime pay provisions “any employee employed by an establishment which is a  *  *  * restaurant”. The term restaurant as used in section 13(b)(8) of the Act means an establishment which is primarily engaged in selling and serving to purchasers at retail prepared food and beverages for immediate consumption on the premises. This includes such establishments commonly known as lunch counters, refreshment stands, cafes, cafeterias, coffee shops, diners, dining rooms, lunch rooms, or tea rooms. The term “restaurant” does not include drinking establishments, such as bars or cocktail lounges, whose sales of alcoholic beverages exceed the receipts from sales of prepared foods and nonalcoholic beverages. Certain food or beverage service employees of establishments such as bars and cocktail lounges, however, may be exempt under section 13(b)(18).

(b) Not all places where food is served for immediate consumption on the premises are “restaurant” establishments within the meaning of section 13(b)(8). Such service is sometimes provided as an incidental activity of an establishment of another kind, rather than by an establishment possessing the physical and functional characteristics of a separate place of business engaged in restaurant operations. In such event, the establishment providing the meal service is not an establishment “which is” a restaurant as section 13(b)(8) requires for exemption. Further, not every place which serves meals, even if it should qualify as a separate food service establishment, possesses the characteristics of a “restaurant.” The meals served by restaurants are characteristically priced, offered, ordered, and served for consumption by and paid for by the customer on an individual meal basis. A restaurant functions principally, and not merely incidentally, to meet the immediate needs and desires of the individual customer for refreshment at the particular time that he visits the establishment for the purpose. A separate transaction to accommodate these needs and desires takes place on the occasion of each such visit. A “restaurant”, therefore, is to be distinguished from an establishment offering meal service on a boarding or term basis or providing such service only as an incident to the operation of an enterprise of another kind and primarily to meet institutional needs for continuing meal service to persons whose continued presence is required for such operation. Accordingly, a boarding house is not a “restaurant” within the meaning of section 13(b)(8), nor are the dining facilities of a boarding school, college or university which serve its students and faculty, nor are the luncheon facilities provided for private and public day school students, nor are other institutional food service facilities providing long-term meal service to stable groups of individuals as an incident to institutional operations in a manner wholly dissimilar to the typical transactions between a restaurant and its customers.

§ 779.388   Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees.
top

(a) A special exemption is provided in section 13(b)(18) of the Act for certain food or beverage service employees of retail or service establishments. This section excludes from the overtime pay provisions in section 7 of the Act, “any employee of a retail or service establishment who is employed primarily in connection with the preparation or offering of food or beverages for human consumption, either on the premises, or by such services as catering, banquet, box lunch, or curb or counter service, to the public, to employees, or to members or guests of members of clubs.” This is an employee exemption, intended to apply to employees engaged in the named activities for such establishments as “drug stores, department stores, bowling alleys, and the like.” (S. Rept. No. 1487, 89th Cong., second session, p. 32.)

(b) The 13(b)(18) exemption will apply only if the following two tests are met:

(1) The employee must be an employee of a retail or service establishment (as defined in section 13(a)(2) of the Act); and

(2) The employee must be employed primarily in connection with the specified food or beverage service activities. If both of the above criteria are met, the employee is exempt from the overtime pay provisions of the Act.

(c) The establishment by which the employee is employed must be a “retail or service establishment.” This term is defined in section 13(a)(2) of the Act and the definition is quoted in §779.24; the application of the definition is considered at length earlier in this subpart. In accordance with this definition, the establishment will be a “retail or service establishment” for purposes of section 13(b) (18) if 75 percent or more of the establishment's annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services (or of both) is not for resale and is recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry.

(d) If the establishment comes within the above definition it is immaterial that the establishment is in an enterprise or part of an enterprise described in section 3(s). Thus section 13(b)(18) will be applicable regardless of the annual dollar volume of sales of the establishment or of the enterprise of which it is a part. It should also be noted that it is not required that the establishment make more than 50 percent of its annual dollar volume of sales within the State in which it is located. The establishment by which the employee is employed, provided it qualifies as a “retail or service establishment,” may be a drug store, department store, cocktail lounge, night club, and the like.

(e) This exemption does not apply to employees of the ordinary bakery or grocery store who handle, prepare or sell food or beverages for human consumption since such food or beverages are not prepared or offered for consumption “on the premises, or by such services as catering, banquet, box lunch, or curb or counter service  *  *  *.”

(f) If the establishment by which the employee is employed is a “retail or service establishment,” as explained above, he will be exempt under section 13(b)(18) provided he is employed primarily in connection with the preparation or offering of food or beverages for human consumption either on the premises, or by such services as catering, banquet, box lunch, or curb or counter service, to the public, to employees, or to members or guests of members of clubs. An employee employed in the actual preparation or serving of the food or beverages or in activities closely related and directly essential to the preparation and serving will be regarded as engaged in the described activities. The exemption, therefore, extends not only to employees actually cooking, packaging or serving food or beverages, but also to employees such as cashiers, hostesses, dishwashers, busboys, and cleanup men. Also, where the food or beverages are served away from the establishment, the exemption extends to employees of the retail or service establishment who make ready the serving place, serve the food, clean up, and transport the equipment, food and beverages to and from the serving place.

(g) For the exemption to apply, the employee must be engaged “primarily” in performing the described activities. A sales clerk in a drug store, department store or other establishment, who as an incident to his other duties, occasionally prepares or otherwise handles food or beverages for human consumption on the premises will not come within the scope of this exemption. The exemption is intended for employees who devote all or most of their time to the described food or beverage service activities. For administrative purposes this exemption will not be considered defeated for an employee in any workweek in which he devotes more than one-half of his time worked to such activities.

Subpart E—Provisions Relating to Certain Employees of Retail or Service Establishments
top
General Principles
top
§ 779.400   Purpose of subpart.
top

The 1966 amendments to the Act changed certain existing provisions and added other provisions pertaining to exemptions from the requirements of sections 6 and 7 with respect to certain employees. This subpart deals with those exemptions provisions of interest to retail or service enterprises or establishments.

Executive, Administrative, and Professional Employees and Outside Salesmen
top
§ 779.401   Statutory provision.
top

Section 13(a)(1) of the Act provides that the provisions of sections 6 and 7 shall not apply with respect to:

Any employee employed in a bona fide executive, administrative, or professional capacity (including any employee employed in the capacity of academic administrative personnel or teacher in elementary or secondary schools), or in the capacity of outside salesman (as such terms are defined and delimited from time to time by regulations of the Secretary, subject to the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, except that an employee of a retail or service establishment shall not be excluded from the definition of employee employed in a bona fide executive or administrative capacity because of the number of hours in his workweek which he devotes to activities not directly or closely related to the performance of executive or administrative activities, if less than 40 per centum of his hours worked in the workweek are devoted to such activities).

§ 779.402   “Executive” and “administrative” employees defined.
top

The terms “executive” and “administrative” as used in section 13(a)(1) of the Act are defined and delimited in subpart A of part 541 of this chapter and explained in subpart B of that part. These regulations are applicable under the amended section 13(a)(1) in determining which employees are bona fide executive or administrative employees. The clause that is enclosed in parentheses in section 13(a)(1) and which reads “including any employee employed in the capacity of academic administrative personnel for teacher in elementary or secondary schools” was added by the 1966 amendments to the Act. This clause will not have any affect in the application of the regulations to retail or service establishments. The Act and the regulations point out the fact that an executive or administrative employee of a retail or service establishment may devote up to 40 percent of his hours worked in a workweek to activities which are not directly and closely related to the performance of executive or administrative activities and still qualify as a bona fide executive or administrative employee. However, in other types of establishments such a tolerance is limited to 20 percent, except where special provisions are made in part 541 of this chapter.

§ 779.403   Administrative and executive employees in covered enterprises employed in other than retail or service establishments.
top

The up-to-40 percent tolerance for nonexecutive or nonadministrative duties discussed in the preceding section, does not apply to executive or administrative employees of an establishment other than a “retail or service establishment.” For example, an executive or administrative employee of a central office or a central warehouse of a chain store system is not an employee of a “retail or service establishment,” and therefore must still devote not more than 20 percent of his hours worked in a workweek to activities which are not directly and closely related to the performance of executive or administrative duties in order to qualify as a bona fide executive or administrative employee under section 13(a)(1), except where special provisions are made in the regulations issued under that section of the Act.

§ 779.404   Other section 13(a)(1) employees employed in covered enterprises.
top

The “professional” employee or the “outside salesman” employed by a retail or service establishment in a covered enterprise, in order to qualify as a bona fide “professional employee” or as an “outside salesman,” must meet all the requirements set forth in the regulations issued and found in part 541, subpart A of this chapter, and further explained in subpart B thereof. The up-to-40 percent tolerance discussed in §779.403 for “administrative and executive employees” of a retail or service establishment does not apply to the “professional employee” or the “outside salesman.”

Students, Learners, and Handicapped Workers
top
§ 779.405   Statutory provisions.
top

Section 13(a)(7) of the Act provides that the provisions of sections 6 and 7 shall not apply to:

Any employee to the extent that such employee is exempted by regulations, order, or certificate of the Secretary issued under section 14.

Section 14 of the Act provides, in pertinent part, as follows:

Learners, Apprentices, Students, and Handicapped Workers

Sec.14. (a) The Secretary of Labor, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by regulations or by orders provide for the employment of learners, of apprentices, and of messengers employed primarily in delivering letters and messages, under special certificates issued pursuant to regulations of the Secretary, at such wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 and subject to such limitations as to time, number, proportion, and length of service as the Secretary shall prescribe.

(b) The Secretary, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by regulation or order provide for the employment of full-time students, regardless of age but in compliance with applicable child labor laws, on a part-time basis in retail or service establishments (not to exceed twenty hours in any workweek) or on a part-time or a full-time basis in such establishments during school vacations, under special certificates issued pursuant to regulations of the Secretary, at a wage rate not less than 85 per centum of the minimum wage applicable under section 6, except that the proportion of student hours of employment to total hours of employment of all employees in any establishment may not exceed (1) such proportion for the corresponding month of the 12-month period preceding May 1, 1961, (2) in the case of a retail or service establishment whose employees (other than employees engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce) are covered by this Act for the first time on or after the effective date of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1966, such proportion for the corresponding month of the 12-month period immediately prior to such date, or (3) in the case of a retail or service establishment coming into existence after May 1, 1961, or a retail or service establishment for which records of student hours worked are not available, a proportion of student hours of employment to total hours of employment of all employees based on the practice during the 12-month period preceding May 1, 1961, in (A) similar establishments of the same employer in the same general metropolitan area in which the new establishment is located, (B) similar establishments of the same employer in the same or nearby counties if the new establishment is not in a metropolitan area, or (C) other establishments of the same general character operating in the community or the nearest comparable community. Before the Secretary may issue a certificate under this subsection he must find that such employment will not create a substantial probability of reducing the full-time employment opportunities of persons other than those employed under this subsection.

(d)(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection, the Secretary of Labor, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by regulation or order provide for the employment under special certificates of individuals  *  *  * whose earning or productive capacity is impaired by age or physical or mental deficiency or injury, at wages which are lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of this Act but not less than 50 per centum of such wage and which are commensurate with those paid nonhandicapped workers in industry in the vicinity for essentially the same type, quality, and quantity of work.

(2) The Secretary, pursuant to such regulations as he shall prescribe and upon certification of the State agency administering or supervising the administration of vocational rehabilitation services, may issue special certificates for the employment of—

(A) handicapped workers engaged in work which is incidental to training or evaluation programs, and

(B) multihandicapped individuals and other individuals whose earning capacity is so severly impaired that they are unable to engage in competitive employment,

at wages which are less than those required by this subsection and which are related to the worker's productivity.

(3)(A) The Secretary may by regulation or order provide for the employment of handicapped clients in work activities centers under special certificates at wages which are less than the minimums applicable under section 6 of this Act or prescribed by paragraph (1) of this subsection and which constitute equitable compensation for such clients in work activities centers.

(B) For purposes of this section, the term “work activities centers” shall mean centers planned and designed exclusively to provide therapeutic activities for handicapped clients whose physical or mental impairment is so severe as to make their productive capacity inconsequential.

§ 779.406   “Student-learners”.
top

(a) Applicable regulations. In accordance with section 14 of the Act regulations have been issued to provide for employment under special certificates of student-learners at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act. These regulations are set forth in part 520 of this chapter and govern the issuance of special certificates for student-learners in covered employments generally as well as such employments in retail or service establishments.

(b) Definitions. The regulations in §520.2 of this chapter define “student-learners” and “bona fide vocational training program” as follows:

(1) A student-learner is defined as “a student who is receiving instruction in an accredited school, college or university and who is employed on a part-time basis, pursuant to a bona fide vocational training program.”

(2) A bona fide vocational training program is defined as “one authorized and approved by a State board of vocational education or other recognized educational body and provides for part-time employment training which may be scheduled for a part of the workday or workweek, for alternating weeks or for other limited periods during the year, supplemented by and integrated with a definitely organized plan of instruction designed to teach technical knowledge and related industrial information given as a regular part of the student-learner's course by an accredited school, college or university.”

§ 779.407   Learners other than “student-learners”.
top

Regulations have been issued in accordance with the authority in section 14 of the Act to provide for employment under special certificates of learners at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act. Part 522 of this chapter contains the general regulations for learners and those for learners in particular industries. General learner regulations are set forth in §§522.1 to 522.11 of this chapter.

§ 779.408   “Full-time students”.
top

The 1961 Amendments added to section 14 of the Act, the authority to issue special certificates for the employment of “full-time students,” under certain specified conditions, at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6. The student, to qualify for a special certificate must attend school full time and his employment must be outside of his school hours and his employment must be in a retail or service establishment. In addition, the student's employment must not be of the type ordinarily given to a full-time employee. “The purpose of this provision,” as made clear in the legislative history, “is to provide employment opportunities for students who desire to work part time outside of their school hours without the displacement of adult workers” (S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., first session, p. 29). The application of this provision was amplified by the 1966 Amendments to provide for the employment of full-time students regardless of age but in compliance with applicable child labor laws in retail or service establishments and in agriculture (not to exceed 20 hours in any workweek) or on a part-time or a full-time basis during school vacations at a wage rate not less than 85 percent of the applicable minimum wage (H. Rept. 1366, 89th Cong., second session, pp. 34 and 35). Regulations authorizing the issuance of certificates under this provision of the Act are published in part 519 of this chapter.

§ 779.409   Handicapped workers.
top

Regulations have been issued under the authority in section 14 of the Act to provide for employment under special certificate of handicapped workers at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act. These regulations are set forth in part 524 of this chapter. In these regulations handicapped workers are defined as individuals whose earning capacity is impaired by age or physical or mental deficiency or injury for the work they are to perform.

Employees Compensated Principally by Commissions
top
§ 779.410   Statutory provision.
top

Section 7 of the Act provides, in subsection (i):

(i) No employer shall be deemed to have violated subsection (a) by employing any employee of a retail or service establishment for a workweek in excess of the applicable workweek specified therein, if (1) the regular rate of pay of such employee is in excess of one and one-half times the minimum hourly rate applicable to him under section 6, and (2) more than half his compensation for a representative period (not less than 1 month) represents commissions on goods or services. In determining the proportion of compensation representing commissions, all earnings resulting from the application of a bona fide commission rate shall be deemed commissions on goods or services without regard to whether the computed commissions exceed the draw or guarantee.

There are briefly set forth in §§779.411 to 779.421 some guiding principles for determining whether an employee's employment and compensation meet the conditions set forth in section 7(i).

§ 779.411   Employee of a “retail or service establishment”.
top

In order for an employee to come within the exemption from the overtime pay requirement provided by section 7(i) for certain employees receiving commissions, the employee must be employed by a retail or service establishment. The term “retail or service establishment” is defined in section 13(a)(2) of the Act. The definition is set forth in §779.24; its application is considered at length in subpart D of this part. As used in section 7(i), as in other provisions of the Act, the term “retail or service establishment” means an establishment 75 per centum of whose annual dollar volume of sales of goods or services (or of both) is not for resale and is recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry.

§ 779.412   Compensation requirements for overtime pay exemption under section 7(i).
top

An employee of a “retail or service establishment” who is paid on a commission basis or whose pay includes compensation representing commissions need not be paid the premium compensation prescribed by section 7(a) for overtime hours worked in a workweek, provided the following conditions are met:

(a) The “regular rate” of pay of such employee must be more than one and one-half times the minimum hourly rate applicable to him under section 6, and

(b) More than half his compensation for a “representative period” (not less than one month) must represent commissions on goods or services.

§ 779.413   Methods of compensation of retail store employees.
top

(a) Retail or service establishment employees are generally compensated (apart from any extra payments for overtime or other additional payments) by one of the following methods:

(1) Straight salary or hourly rate: Under this method of compensation the employee receives a stipulated sum paid weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, or monthly or a fixed amount for each hour of work.

(2) Salary plus commission: Under this method of compensation the employee receives a commission on all sales in addition to a base salary (see paragraph (a)(1) of this section).

(3) Quota bonus: This method of compensation is similar to paragraph (a)(2) of this section except that the commission payment is paid on sales over and above a predetermined sales quota.

(4) Straight commission without advances: Under this method of compensation the employee is paid a flat percentage on each dollar of sales he makes.

(5) Straight commission with “advances,” “guarantees,” or “draws.” This method of compensation is similar to paragraph (a)(4) of this section except that the employee is paid a fixed weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, or monthly “advance,” “guarantee,” or “draw.” At periodic intervals a settlement is made at which time the payments already made are supplemented by any additional amount by which his commission earnings exceed the amounts previously paid.

(b) The above listing in paragraph (a) of this section which reflects the typical methods of compensation is not, of course, exhaustive of the pay practices which may exist in retail or service establishments. Although typically in retail or service establishments commission payments are keyed to sales, the requirement of the exemption is that more than half the employee's compensation represent commissions “on goods or services,” which would include all types of commissions customarily based on the goods or services which the establishment sells, and not exclusively those measured by “sales” of these goods or services.

§ 779.414   Types of employment in which this overtime pay exemption may apply.
top

Section 7(i) was enacted to relieve an employer from the obligation of paying overtime compensation to certain employees of a retail or service establishment paid wholly or in greater part on the basis of commissions. These employees are generally employed in so-called “big ticket” departments and those establishments or parts of establishments where commission methods of payment traditionally have been used, typically those dealing in furniture, bedding and home furnishings, floor covering, draperies, major appliances, musical instruments, radios and television, men's clothing, women's ready to wear, shoes, corsets, home insulation, and various home custom orders. There may be other segments in retailing where the proportionate amount of commission payments would be great enough for employees employed in such segments to come within the exemption. Each such situation will be examined, where exemption is claimed, to make certain the employees treated as exempt from overtime compensation under section 7(i) are properly within the statutory exclusion.

§ 779.415   Computing employee's compensation for the representative period.
top

(a) In determining for purposes of section 7(i) whether more than half of an employee's compensation “represents commissions on goods or services” it is necessary first to total all compensation paid to or on behalf of the employee as remuneration for his employment during the period. All such compensation in whatever form or by whatever method paid should be included, whether calculated on a time, piece, incentive or other basis, and amounts representing any board, lodging or other facilities furnished should be included in addition to cash payments, to the extent required by section 3(m) of the Act and part 531 of this chapter. Payments excludable from the employee's “regular rate” under section 7(e) may be excluded from this computation if, but only if, they are payments of a kind not made as compensation for his employment during the period. (See part 778 of this chapter.)

(b) In computing the employee's total compensation for the representative period it will in many instances become clear whether more than half of it represents commissions. Where this is not clear, it will be necessary to identify and total all portions of the compensation which represent commissions on the goods or services that the retail or service establishment sells. In determining what compensation “represents commissions on goods or services” it is clear that any portion of the compensation paid, as a weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, monthly, or other periodic salary, or as an hourly or daily rate of pay, does not “represent commissions” paid to the employee. On the other hand, it is equally clear that an employee paid entirely by commissions on the goods or services which the retail or service establishment sells will, in any representative period which may be chosen, satisfy the requirement that more than half of his compensation represents commissions. The same will be true of an employee receiving both salary and commission payments whose commissions always exceed the salary. If, on the other hand, the commissions paid to an employee receiving a salary are always a minor part of his total compensation it is clear that he will not qualify for the exemption provided by section 7(i).

§ 779.416   What compensation “represents commissions.”
top

(a) Employment arrangements which provide for a commission on goods or services to be paid to an employee of a retail or service establishment may also provide, as indicated in §779.413, for the payment to the employee at a regular pay period of a fixed sum of money, which may bear a more or less fixed relationship to the commission earnings which could be expected, on the basis of experience, for an average period of the same length. Such periodic payments, which are variously described in retail or service establishments as “advances,” “draws,” or “guarantees,” are keyed to a time base and are usually paid at weekly or other fixed intervals which may in some instances be different from and more frequent than, the intervals for payment of any earnings computed exclusively on a commission basis. They are normally smaller in amount than the commission earnings expected for such a period and if they prove to be greater, a deduction of the excess amount from commission earnings for a subsequent period, if otherwise lawful, may or may not be customary under the employment arrangement. A determination of whether or to what extent such periodic payments can be considered to represent commissions may be required in those situations where the employment arrangement is that the employee will be paid the stipulated sum, or the commission earnings allocable to the same period, whichever is the greater amount. The stipulated sum can never represent commissions, of course, if it is actually paid as a salary. If, however, it appears from all the facts and circumstances of the employment that the stipulated sum is not so paid and that it actually functions as an integral part of a true commission basis of payment, then such compensation may qualify as compensation which “represents commissions on goods or services” within the meaning of clause (2) of the section 7(i) exemption.

(b) The express statutory language of section 7(i), as amended in 1966, provides that “In determining the proportion of compensation representing commissions, all earnings resulting from the application of a bona fide commission rate shall be deemed commissions on goods or services without regard to whether the computed commissions exceed the draw or guarantee” which may be paid to the employee. Thus an employee who is paid a guarantee or draw against commissions computed in accordance with a bona fide commission payment plan or formula under which the computed commissions vary in accordance with the employee's performance on the job will qualify for exemption provided the conditions of 7(i)(1) are met as explained in §779.419. Under a bona fide commission plan all of the computed commissions will be counted as compensation representing commissions even though the amount of commissions may not equal or exceed the guarantee or draw in some workweeks. The exemption will also apply in the case of an employee who is paid a fixed salary plus an additional amount of earned commissions if the amount of commission payments exceeds the total amount of salary payments for the representative period.

(c) A commission rate is not bona fide if the formula for computing the commissions is such that the employee, in fact, always or almost always earns the same fixed amount of compensation for each workweek (as would be the case where the computed commissions seldom or never equal or exceed the amount of the draw or guarantee). Another example of a commission plan which would not be considered as bona fide is one in which the employee receives a regular payment consituting nearly his entire earnings which is expressed in terms of a percentage of the sales which the establishment or department can always be expected to make with only a slight addition to his wages based upon a greatly reduced percentage applied to the sales above the expected quota.

§ 779.417   The “representative period” for testing employee's compensation.
top

(a) Whether compensation representing commissions constitutes most of an employee's pay, so as to satisfy the exemption condition contained in clause (2) or section 7(i), must be determined by testing the employee's compensation for a “representative period” of not less than 1 month. The Act does not define a representative period, but plainly contemplates a period which can reasonably be accepted by the employer, the employee, and disinterested persons as being truly representative of the compensation aspects of the employee's employment on which this exemption test depends. A representative period within the meaning of this exemption may be described generally as a period which typifies the total characteristics of an employee's earning pattern in his current employment situation, with respect to the fluctuations of the proportion of his commission earnings to his total compensation.

(b) To this end the period must be as recent a period, of sufficient length (see paragraph (c) of this section) to fully and fairly reflect all such factors, as can practicably be used. Thus, as a general rule, if a month is long enough to reflect the necessary factors, the most recent month for which necessary computations can be made prior to the payday for the first workweek in the current month should be chosen. Similarly, if it is necessary to use a period as long as a calendar or fiscal quarter year to fully represent such factors, the quarterly period used should ordinarily be the one ending immediately prior to the quarter in which the current workweek falls. If a period longer than a quarter year is required in order to include all the factors necessary to make it fully and fairly representative of the current period of employment for purposes of section 7(i), the end of such period should likewise be at least as recent as the end of the quarter year immediately preceding the quarter in which the current workweek falls. Thus, in the case of a representative period of 6 months or of 1 year, recomputation each quarter would be required so as to include in it the most recent two quarter-years or four quarter-years, as the case may be. The quarterly recomputation would tend to insure that the period used reflects any gradual changes in the characteristics of the employment which could be important in determining the ratio between compensation representing commissions and other compensation in the current employment situation of the employee.

(c) The representative period for determining whether more than half of an employee's compensation represents commissions cannot, under the express terms of section 7(i), be less than 1 month. The period chosen should be long enough to stabilize the measure of the balance between the portions of the employee's compensation which respectively represent commissions and other earnings, against purely seasonal or plainly temporary changes. Although the Act sets no upper limit on the length of the period, the statutory intent would not appear to be served by any recognition of a period in excess of 1 year as representative for purposes of this exemption. There would seem to be no employment situation in a retail or service establishment in which a period longer than a year would be needed to represent the seasonal and other fluctuations in commission compensation.

(d) Accordingly, for each employee whose exemption is to be tested in any workweek under clause (2) of section 7(i), an appropriate representative period or a formula for establishing such a period must be chosen and must be designated and substantiated in the employer's records (see §516.16 of this chapter). When the facts change so that the designated period or the period established by the designated formula is no longer representative, a new representative period or formula therefor must be adopted which is appropriate and sufficient for the purpose, and designated and substantiated in the employer's records. Although the period selected and designated must be one which is representative with respect to the particular employee for whom exemption is sought, and the appropriateness of the representative period for that employee will always depend on his individual earning pattern, there may be situations in which the factors affecting the proportionate relationship between total compensation and compensation representing commissions will be substantially identical for a group or groups of employees in a particular occupation or department of a retail or service establishment or in the establishment as a whole. Where this can be demonstrated to be a fact, and is substantiated by pertinent information in the employer's records, the same representative period or formula for establishing such a period may properly be used for each of the similarly situated employees in the group.

§ 779.418   Grace period for computing portion of compensation representing commissions.
top

Where it is not practicably possible for the employer to compute the commission earnings of the employee for all workweeks ending in a prior representative period in time to determine the overtime pay obligations, if any, for the workweek or workweeks immediately following, 1 month of grace may be used by the retail or service establishment. This month of grace will not change the length of the current period in which the prior period is used as representative. It will merely allow an interval of 1 month between the end of the prior period and the beginning of the current period in order to permit necessary computations for the prior period to be made. For example, assume that the representative period used is the quarter-year immediately preceding the current quarter, and commissions for the prior period cannot be computed in time to determine the overtime pay obligations for the workweeks included in the first pay period in the current quarter. By applying a month of grace, the next earlier quarterly period may be used during the first month of the current quarter; and the quarter-year immediately preceding the current quarter will then be used for all workweeks ending in a quarter-year period which begins 1 month after the commencement of the current quarter. Thus, a January 1–March 31 representative period may be used for purposes of section 7(i) in a quarterly period beginning May 1 and ending July 31, allowing the month of April for necessary commission computations for the representative period. Once this method of computation is adopted it must be used for each successive period in like manner. The prior period used as representative must, of course, as in other cases, meet all the requirements of a representative period as previously explained.

§ 779.419   Dependence of the section 7(i) overtime pay exemption upon the level of the employee's “regular rate” of pay.
top

(a) If more than half of the compensation of an employee of a retail or service establishment for a representative period as previously explained represents commissions on goods or services, one additional condition must be met in order for the employee to be exempt under section 7(i) from the overtime pay requirement of section 7(a) of the Act in a workweek when his hours of work exceed the maximum number specified in section (a). This additional condition is that his “regular rate” of pay for such workweek must be more than one and one-half times the minimum hourly rate applicable to him from the minimum wage provisions of section 6 of the Act. If it is not more than one and one-half times such minimum rate, there is no overtime pay exemption for the employee in that particular workweek.

(b) The meaning of the “regular rate” of pay under the Act is well established. As explained by the Supreme Court of the United States, it is “the hourly rate actually paid the employee for the normal, nonovertime workweek for which he is employed” and “by its very nature must reflect all payments which the parties have agreed shall be received regularly during the workweek, exclusive of overtime payments.” ( Walling v. Youngerman-Reynolds Hardwood Co., 325 U.S. 419.) It is a rate per hour, computed for the particular workweek by a mathematical computation in which hours worked are divided into straight-time earnings for such hours to obtain the statutory regular rate ( Overnight Motor Co. v. Missel, 316 U.S. 572). By definition (Act, section 7(e), the “regular rate” as used in section 7 of the Act includes “all remuneration paid to, or on behalf of, the employee” except payments expressly excluded by the seven numbered clauses of section 7(e). The computation of the regular rate for purposes of the Act is explained in part 778 of this chapter. The “regular rate” is not synonymous with the “basic rate” which may be established by agreement or understanding of the parties to the employment agreement under the provisions of section 7(g)(3) of the Act; that section, like section 7(i), merely provides an exemption from the general requirement of overtime compensation based on the regular rate contained in section 7(a), if certain prescribed conditions are met (in section 7(g)(3) these include payment of overtime compensation on a basic rate established and authorized in accordance with its terms). The requirement of section 7(i) with respect to the “regular rate” of pay of an employee who may come within the exemption which it provides is a simple one: “the regular rate of pay of such employee,” when employed “for a workweek in excess of the applicable workweek specified” in section 7(a), must be “in excess of one and one-half times the minimum hourly rate applicable to him under section 6.” The employee's “regular rate” of pay must be computed, in accordance with the principles discussed above, on the basis of his hours of work in that particular workweek and the employee's compensation attributable to such hours. The hourly rate thus obtained must be compared with the applicable minimum rate of pay of the particular employee under the provisions of section 6 of the Act. If the latter rate is $1.60 an hour, for example, then the employee's regular rate must be more than $2.40 an hour if the exemption is to apply.

§ 779.420   Recordkeeping requirements.
top

The records which must be kept with respect to employees for whom the overtime pay exemption under section 7(i) is taken are specified in §516.16 of this chapter.

§ 779.421   Basic rate for computing overtime compensation of nonexempt employees receiving commissions.
top

The overtime compensation due employees of a retail or service establishment who do not meet the exemption requirements of section 7(i) may be computed under the provisions of section 7(g)(3) of the Act if the employer and employee agree to do so under the conditions there provided. Section 7(g)(3) permits the use of a basic rate established, pursuant to agreement or understanding in advance of the work, in lieu of the regular rate for the purpose of computing overtime compensation. The use of such a basic rate for employees of a retail or service establishment compensated wholly or partly by commissions is authorized under the conditions set forth in part 548 of this chapter.

Subpart F—Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises
top
General
top
§ 779.500   Purpose of subpart.
top

In Subpart A of this part, reference was made to a number of regulations which discuss provisions of the Act, such as general coverage, overtime compensation, joint employment, hours worked, and methods of payment of wages, which are applicable to others as well as to retailers and their employees. (See §779.6.) In addition to those provisions, the act contains other provisions of interest to retailers and their employees. It is the purpose of this subpart to focus attention on several of the more significant provisions in these categories.

Equal Pay Provisions
top
§ 779.501   Statutory provisions.
top

Section 6(d) of the Act provides:

(1) No employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section shall discriminate, within any establishment in which such employees are employed, between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and which are performed under similar working conditions, except where such payment is made pursuant to (i) a seniority system; (ii) a merit system; (iii) a system which measures earnings by quantity or quality of production; or (iv) a differential based on any other factor other than sex: Provided, That an employer who is paying a wage rate differential in violation of this subsection shall not, in order to comply with the provisions of this subsection, reduce the wage rate of any employee.

(2) No labor organization, or its agents, representing employees of an employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section shall cause or attempt to cause such an employer to discriminate against an employee in violation of paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) For purposes of administration and enforcement, any amounts owing to any employee which have been withheld in violation of this subsection shall be deemed to be unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation under this Act.

(4) As used in this subsection, the term “labor organization” means any organization of any kind, or any agency or employee representation committee or plan, in which employees participate and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning grievances, labor disputes, wages, rates of pay, hours of employment, or conditions of work.

Official interpretations of the Department of Labor with respect to the provisions of section 6(d) are found in part 800 of this chapter.

Child Labor Provisions
top
§ 779.502   Statutory provisions; regulations in part 1500 of this title.
top

(a) The Act's prohibitions in relation to employment of child labor, which may have application to retailers, are found in section 12(a) and section 12(c). Section 12(a) reads as follows:

No producer, manufacturer, or dealer shall ship or deliver for shipment in commerce any goods produced in an establishment situated in the United States in or about which within 30 days prior to the removal of such goods therefrom any oppressive child labor has been employed: Provided, That any such shipment or delivery for shipment of such goods by a purchaser who acquired them in good faith in reliance on written assurance from the producer, manufacturer, or dealer that the goods were produced in compliance with the requirements of this section, and who acquired such goods for value without notice of any such violation, shall not be deemed prohibited by this subsection and conviction of a defendant for the shipment or delivery for shipment of any goods under the conditions herein prohibited shall be a bar to any further prosecution against the same defendant for shipments or deliveries for shipment of any such goods before the beginning of said prosecution.

Section 12(c) provides:

No employer shall employ any oppressive child labor in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce or in any enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

(b) “Oppressive child labor” is defined by the Act, for purposes of the foregoing provisions, in the language set forth in §779.505.

(c) Sections 570.1 to 570.129 of this chapter contain applicable regulations and a detailed discussion of the child labor provisions of the Act. Although those sections offer guidance for all including retailers, there are set forth in §§779.503 through 779.508 pertinent provisions and a brief discussion of the standards which are of particular interest to those in the retail field.

§ 779.503   The retailer and section 12(a).
top

Section 12(a) prohibits certain shipments or deliveries for shipment by “producers,” “manufacturers” “or dealers.” These terms having appeared in this section prior to the 1961 amendments are defined and described in §570.105 of this chapter, and said definitions remain unchanged. It should be noted that the term “manufacturer” as used in section 12(a) includes retailers who, in addition to retail selling, engage in such manufacturing activities as the making of slipcovers or curtains, the baking of bread, the making of candy, or the making of window frames. Further, the term “dealers” refers to anyone who deals in goods including persons engaged in buying, selling, trading, distributing, delivering, etc. “Dealers,” therefore, as used in section 12(a) include retailers. Therefore, where a retailer's business unit is covered under the Act and he is a producer, manufacturer or dealer within the meaning of this section, the retailer must comply with the requirements of section 12(a). If a retailer's business unit which is covered under the Act is exempt as a retail or service establishment under section 13 of the Act from the monetary requirements of the Act, the requirements of the child labor provisions must still be met. Thus, retail or service establishments, in covered enterprises, doing less than $250,000 annually, must comply with the child labor requirements even if they are exempt from minimum wage and overtime provisions under section 13(a)(2) of the Act.

§ 779.504   The retailer and section 12(c).
top

Section 12(c) was amended in 1961 to prohibit the employment of oppressive child labor in any enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. Thus, employers in every enterprise which is covered under the Act must comply with section 12(c) of the child labor provisions of the Act. As stated in §779.503, compliance with this provision is necessary even though the employers in a particular establishment or establishments of a covered enterprise are exempt from the requirement of compensating employees in accordance with sections 6 and 7 of the Act.

§ 779.505   “Oppressive child labor” defined.
top

Section 3(1) of the Act defines oppressive child labor as follows:

“Oppressive child labor” means a condition of employment under which (1) any employee under the age of 16 years is employed by an employer (other than a parent or a person standing in place of a parent employing his own child or a child in his custody under the age of 16 years in an occupation other than manufacturing or mining or an occupation found by the Secretary of Labor to be particularly hazardous for the employment of children between the ages of 16 and 18 years or detrimental to their health or well-being) in any occupation, or (2) any employee between the ages of 16 and 18 years is employed by an employer in any occupation which the Secretary of Labor shall find and by order declare to be particularly hazardous for the employment of children between such ages or detrimental to their health or well-being; but oppressive child labor shall not be deemed to exist by virtue of the employment in any occupation of any person with respect to whom the employer shall have on file an unexpired certificate issued and held pursuant to regulations of the Secretary of Labor certifying that such person is above the oppressive child labor age. The Secretary of Labor shall provide by regulation or by order that the employment of employees between the ages of 14 and 16 years in occupations other than manufacturing and mining shall not be deemed to constitute oppressive child labor if and to the extent that the Secretary of Labor determines that such employment is confined to periods which will not interfere with their schooling and to conditions which will not interfere with their health and well-being.

§ 779.506   Sixteen-year minimum.
top

The Act sets a 16-year minimum for employment in manufacturing or mining occupations. Furthermore, this age minimum is applicable to employment in all other occupations unless otherwise provided by regulation or order issued by the Secretary.

§ 779.507   Fourteen-year minimum.
top

(a) Prohibited occupations. With respect to employment in occupations other than manufacturing and mining, the Secretary is authorized to issue regulations or orders lowering the age minimum to 14 years where he finds that such employment is confined to periods which will not interfere with the minors' schooling and to conditions which will not interfere with their health and well-being. Pursuant to this authority, the Secretary permits the employment of 14- and 15-year-old children in a limited number of occupations where the work is performed outside school hours and is confined to other specified limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart C (§§570.31 through 570.38 of this chapter), employment of minors in this age group is not permitted in the following occupations:

(1) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations including occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured, mined, or otherwise processed;

(2) Occupations involving the operation or tending of hoisting apparatus or of any power-driven machinery other than office machines;

(3) The operation of motor vehicles or service as helpers on such vehicles;

(4) Public messenger service;

(5) Occupations declared to be particularly hazardous or detrimental to health or well-being by the Secretary;

(6) Occupations in connection with (i) transportation of persons or property by rail, highway, air, water, pipeline, or other means; (ii) warehousing and storage; (iii) communications and public utilities; and (iv) construction (including demolition and repair). Office and sales work performed in connection with the occupations specified in this subparagraph is permitted if such work is not performed on trains or any other media of transportation or at the actual site of construction operations.

(b) Permissible occupations; conditions. Employment of 14- and 15-year-olds in all occupations other than those in paragraph (a) of this section is permitted by the regulation under certain conditions specified in the regulation. The permissible occupations for minors between 14 and 16 years of age in retail, food service, and gasoline service establishments are listed in §570.34. The periods and conditions of employment for such minors are set out in §570.35.

§ 779.508   Eighteen-year minimum.
top

To protect young workers from hazardous employment, the Act provides for a minimum age of 18 years in occupations found and declared by the Secretary to be particularly hazardous or detrimental to health or well-being of minors 16 and 17 years of age. These occupations may be found in §§570.51 through 570.68 of this chapter. Of particular interest to retailers are §§570.52, 570.58, 570.62 and 570.63 of this chapter pertaining to the occupations of motor-vehicle driver and outside helper, and occupations involving the operation of power-driven hoisting apparatus, bakery machines, and paper products machines.

Driver or Driver's Helper Making Local Deliveries
top
§ 779.509   Statutory provision.
top

Section 13(b)(11) exempts from the provisions of section 7 of the Act:

Any employee employed as a driver or driver's helper making local deliveries, who is compensated for such employment on the basis of trip rates, or other delivery payment plan, if the Secretary shall find that such plan has the general purpose and effect of reducing hours worked by such employees to, or below, the maximum workweek applicable to them under section 7(a).

This is an exemption from the overtime pay requirements only.

§ 779.510   Conditions that must be met for section 13(b)(11) exemption.
top

In order that an employee be exempt from the overtime provisions of the Act under section 13(b)(11) he must be employed as a driver or driver's helper making local deliveries, and, he must be compensated for such employment on a trip rate basis or other delivery payment plan, and such plan must be found by the Secretary to have the general purpose and effect of reducing the hours worked by the driver or driver's helper to, or below, the maximum workweek applicable to him under section 7(a) of the Act. If all the preceding conditions are not met the exemption is inapplicable.

§ 779.511   “Finding by Secretary.”
top

As stated in §779.510, before the section 13(b)(11) exemption may be claimed, the Secretary must find that the trip rate basis of compensation, or other delivery payment plan used to compensate a driver or a driver's helper making local deliveries, has the general purpose and effect of reducing the hours worked by these employees to, or below, the maximum workweek applicable to them under section 7(a) of the Act. The conditions under which such findings may be made, amended, or revoked, and the procedure for obtaining such a finding are set forth in the regulations in part 551 of this chapter.

Records to be Kept by Employers
top
§ 779.512   The recordkeeping regulations.
top

Every employer who is subject to any of the provisions of the Act is required to maintain certain records. The recordkeeping requirements are set forth in regulations which have been published in subparts A and B of part 516 of this chapter. Subpart A contains the requirements applicable to all employers employing covered employees, including the general requirements relating to the posting of notices, the preservation and location of records and similar general provisions. Subpart A also contains the requirements relating to the records which must be kept for exempt executive, administrative, and professional employees and outside salesmen. Subpart B deals with information and data which must be kept with respect to employees who are subject to other exemptions and provisions of the Act.

§ 779.513   Order and form of records.
top

No particular order or form of records is prescribed by the regulations. However, the records which the employer keeps must contain the information and data required by the specific sections of the regulations which are applicable. In addition, where the employer claims an exemption from the minimum wage or overtime or other requirements of the Act, he should also maintain those records which serve to support his claim for exemption, such as records of sales, purchases, and receipts.

§ 779.514   Period for preserving records.
top

Basic records, such as payroll records, certificates issued or required under the Act, and employment agreements and other basic records must be preserved for at least 3 years. Supplementary records such as time and earnings cards or sheets, wage rate tables, work time schedules, or order, shipping and billing records, and similar records need be preserved for only 2 years.

§ 779.515   Regulations should be consulted.
top

This discussion in subpart F of this part is intended only to indicate the general requirements of the recordkeeping regulations. Each employer subject to any provision of the Act should consult the regulations to determine what records he must maintain and the period for which they must be preserved.

 

Browse Part 778 | Browse Part 780


 

----- end DOL content -----

 

Return to Businesses & Employers
Return to TWC Home